Category Archives: Community involvement

Slopes2Summit Bushlinks Project

Keywords – landscape, connectivity, restoration, revegetation, NSW southwest slopes

The Slopes2Summit (S2S) Bushlinks project commenced in August 2012 and is in the first stage of implementing on-ground works to build landscape-scale connectivity across private lands in the southwest Slopes of NSW – from the wet and dry forest ecosystems of the upper catchment and reserves to the threatened Grassy Box Woodlands of the lower slopes and plains (Fig 1.).

Fig 1. Map of the S2S area and priority landscapes for Bushlinks

Fig 1. Map of the S2S area and priority landscapes for Bushlinks

The increasing isolation of plant and animal populations in “island” reserves scattered through an agricultural landscape is a recognised threat to the long term viability and resilience of ecosystems under potential impact of climate change. If we can increase the viable breeding habitat through off-reserve remnant conservation, and increase the habitat for dispersal by increasing connectivity, we may be able to influence the trajectory for some of our species – the Squirrel Glider (Petaurus norfolcensis)) and threatened woodland birds in particular.

The S2S Bushlinks Project is attempting to address connectivity issues through the following approaches:

1. Cross property planning. Foster and encourage cross property planning for habitat connectivity between neighbours, community, Landcare and/or subcatchment groups resulting in more integrated on-ground works projects, and raising awareness of the benefits of connectivity for wildlife.

2. On-ground investment in connectivity. The project is partnering with farmers and land managers to support and encourage fencing and revegetation in strategic places in the landscape with the objective of increasing habitat connectivity.  S2S Bushlinks applies scientific principles to the site assessments and evaluation, which then sets the level of investment in a site.  High scoring sites receive the highest rates of rebate, but the provision of low levels of public investment in sites that may not be of high priority is important for fostering participation in revegetation of any sort to encourage the culture of caring for the land.

Site assessment and scoring for funding level uses the following criteria:

  • Connectivity and landscape value – Does the site link to or create new patches of habitat according to principles of habitat connectivity? (Fig 2)  Is there existing vegetation in 1000ha radius around the site in an optimal range of 30-60%?
  • Area : perimeter ratio – Bigger blocks of revegetation are more cost-efficient and better habitat than linear strips of revegetation, and the project scoring encourages landholder to go bigger and wider in order to qualify for a higher level of funding.
  • Habitat Values – Does the site have existing values like old paddock trees, rocky outcrops or intact native ground layer, and therefore become a more valuable site? Is it in the more fertile, productive parts of the landscape and therefore of more productivity benefit for wildlife as well?
  • Carbon value – The scoring is based on the size of the revegetation and rainfall zone. The CFI Reforestation tool is being used to value the collective potential carbon sequestration of the Bushlinks project.

The emphasis on cross-property planning flows through to the implementation of on-ground works. Landholders are encouraged to work with neighbours and the site evaluation system is used to assess site value without the property boundaries – cooperation makes the site bigger and usually increases the connectivity value, and therefore scores higher.

3. Review and adaptive management process. The site assessment is to be reviewed in July 2013 against the objectives – did it work to prioritise sites well – did we invest wisely? The scientists and experts are then able to work closely with Holbrook Landcare to adjust the project eligibility, assessment and evaluation criteria to continually improve the outcomes in subsequent funding years.

4. Monitoring framework. As part of the in-kind contribution to the project, S2S partners Dr Dave Watson, CSU Albury and Dr. Veronica Doerr, CSIRO are working towards a framework for the long-term monitoring of landscape scale connectivity for continental-scale initiatives like Great Eastern Ranges (GER).  As part of a GER Environmental Trust Project in 2013, an expert panel workshop will be convened to begin this process in 2013.

The framework will then be used to pilot a project-scale design for Bushlinks, which will allow us to measure ecological outcomes.

Bushlinks will contribute to the Slope2Summit portal of the Atlas of Living Australia, supported by the Slopes2Summit facilitator. To develop community participation in monitoring and evaluation, participants and the wider community will be encouraged to contribute wildlife sightings and other data to the atlas.

The S2S partnership applied for funds through the Australian Governments Clean Energy Futures Biodiversity Fund in 2011 and was successful in the 2011/12 funding year for a six year project. Holbrook Landcare Network is managing the S2S Bushlinks Project on behalf of the Slopes2Summit and the Great Eastern Ranges Initiative, in partnership with Murray CMA.

Contact: Kylie Durant, Bushlinks Project Officer, Holbrook Landcare Network, PO Box 121 Holbrook, NSW 2644 Australia. Tel: +61 2 6036 3121

Fig 2. Summary of the connectivity model outlined in Doerr, V.A.J., Doerr, E. D and Davies, M.J. (2010) Does Structural Connectivity Facilitate Dispersal of Native Species in Australia’s Fragmented Terrestrial Landscapes? CEE Review 08-007 (SR44). Collaboration for Environmental Evidence: www.environmentalevidence.org/SR44.html

Fig 2. Summary of the connectivity model outlined in Doerr, V.A.J., Doerr, E. D and Davies, M.J. (2010) Does Structural Connectivity Facilitate Dispersal of Native Species in Australia’s Fragmented Terrestrial Landscapes? CEE Review 08-007 (SR44). Collaboration for Environmental Evidence: http://www.environmentalevidence.org/SR44.html

Fig 3. Revegetation in the farming landscape in the Southwest Slopes of NSW

Fig 3. Revegetation in the farming landscape in the Southwest Slopes of NSW

 

 

West Hume Landcare Group – Taking stock, 24 years on

Judy Frankenberg

Key words: agricultural landscape restoration, community involvement, salinity, threatened species

The West Hume Landcare Group was formed in 1989 as a community response to land degradation in the area. Funding to employ a coordinator for three years was obtained in 1990. This enabled a high level of project activity in addition to tree planting, including a roadside vegetation survey, farm planning workshops, demonstration sites for ground water recharge and discharge management, and perennial pasture establishment. In the first 5 years of its existence, the group organised nearly 250 different events, attracted funding of over $500,000 and managed 17 different projects.

The second 5 years saw a period of consolidation – then, from late 1997, the employment of a full time project officer enabled  the development of a Land and Water Management Plan.  By early 2000 the Group had attracted a total of $1,000,000 in project funding over 11 years.

“Taking Charge of Recharge” was the largest project undertaken by the West Hume Landcare Group, commencing in 2001. It involved 80 properties, with a total of 170,009 local trees and shrubs planted on 370 ha.  Some 93 ha of remnant vegetation were fenced over the two years of the project. This project was the climax of a very busy 12 years of the Landcare Group’s life, during which 400,000 trees and shrubs were planted in a wide variety of projects across the landcare area – in addition to direct seeding and natural regeneration.  This revegetation had a variety of purposes, including recharge and discharge management, corridor linkages between remnants, vegetation connections specifically designed to strengthen the local (threatened) Squirrel Glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) population, and livestock shelter.

Many of the planting projects initially involved only small numbers of trees, with a low proportion of shrubs.  They were important in giving landholders confidence that tree planting was a credible farm management activity and in their ability to succeed in species selection and establishment.  The Landcare group provided a lot of support in species selection, and, as the demand for shrubs grew, the nurseries responded by increasing their availability.

Nearly all revegetation in West Hume has used local species, and as far as possible these were grown from locally sourced seed.  The diversity of shrub species used increased over the years as knowledge and availability of the local flora improved.

Roadside survey. Local knowledge was greatly increased following the roadside survey carried out by 38 landholder volunteers.  They surveyed 460 km of road, recording floristics, conservation value and causes of degradation.  A total of 111 native species were recorded, including 28 shrubs, but very few road sections had greater than 50% shrub cover.  Many of the shrubs. grasses and forbs recorded are considered rare in the landcare area.  Knowledge of the whereabouts of these small remnants has allowed seed collection and propagation of some of them in seed production areas on local properties and at the Wirraminna Environmental Centre at Burrumbuttock.  The need for this local source of seed has been emphasised by the observation that in the case of a few acacia species, local forms are different from those growing in neighbouring areas.

Landcare survey. Landholder views about the importance of vegetation was shown in a landcare survey carried out in 1999. A majority of the 60% of respondents considered that dieback of trees and the lack of shrubs, understorey and wildflowers was of concern and there was a clear concern expressed about the decline of native birds in the area.

When the “Taking Charge of Recharge” project was funded in 2001, the response of landholders was enthusiastic.  The group members were eager to take advantage of the high level of incentives available in this project to increase the scale of planting beyond that generally undertaken previously.  While the prime purpose of the funding was for recharge management, members were keen to establish local species in ecologically appropriate sites.  Ecological and botanical skills within the group were able to support the species choices.

This confidence in the value and feasibility of large revegetation projects has been continued in subsequent years when the Murray CMA has offered good incentives for large area plantings.

Contact:  Judy Frankenberg, +61 2 6026 5326, Email: judy@frankenberg.com.au

Fig 1. School student volunteers planting in block AA on ‘Warrangee’ in 1995.

Fig 1. School student volunteers planting in block AA on ‘Warrangee’ in 1995.

Fig 2. Resulting tree and shrub habitats created from 1995 planting on block AA, 2013.

Fig 2. Resulting tree and shrub habitats created from 1995 planting on block AA, 2013.

Fig 3. ‘Corridors of green’ project, 2013, planted in 1994, “Warrangee” .

Fig 3. ‘Corridors of green’ project, 2013, planted in 1994, “Warrangee” .

Holbrook Landcare “Rebirding the Holbrook Landscape” – assessing performance and learning in action

Chris Cumming and  Kylie Durant

Key words: tree dieback, lerps, restoring the agricultural landscape, community involvement, Holbrook Landcare Network

Holbrook producers established Holbrook Landcare Network in 1988.  It was one of the first Landcare groups in Australia, covering initially 171,000 ha of productive agricultural land in the upper reaches of the Murray Darling Basin. The organisation has directly managed grants of more than $6M across more than 85 projects to address NRM and agricultural issues including salinity and erosion control, soil and pasture management the protection of wildlife habitat.

Of the habitat projects, one of the most successful has been the “Rebirding Project”. A recognition of the importance of birds in the landscape occurred in 1994, when there was widespread concern in Holbrook over eucalypt tree dieback and the potential loss of paddock trees in the landscape. Holbrook Landcare commissioned a survey that identified 41% of the trees in the district were showing signs of dieback, and initiated (with support from our own extension staff and Greening Australia) education programs to inform landholders about the causes of dieback, including the link between cycles of lerp and other insect attack exacerbated by the loss of insectivorous birds.

In 1999 the group was successful in gaining funding for the “Rebirding the Holbrook Landscape to mitigate dieback” revegetation program through the Australian Governments Natural Heritage Trust (NHT), with the aim of drawing birds back onto farms and reducing eucalypt tree dieback.

Actions undertaken. Bird surveys were undertaken at 94 study sites in remnant vegetation on hills, flats and along creek lines. Education components succeeded in engaging the community and increased community knowledge and awareness of habitat issues in Holbrook.  The research information was used to recommend specific guidelines for the revegetation component, including ideal patch size (min 6ha), distance to remnant (1km), position in the landscape and habitat values.

The Rebirding on-ground projects (1999 – 2002) achieved 2150ha of remnant and revegetation work and put 475,000 plants back in the landscape across 118 properties – estimated at 80% of the Holbrook landholders.

Outcomes achieved. Measuring success of the program was very important to the community. A partnership with CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems gave rise to a research project measuring bird use of plantings and remnant vegetation on local farms in 2004 to 2006.  This found that a range of bird species rapidly colonised planted areas and showed evidence of breeding activity, a positive message about the early signs of success of the Rebirding project. Tree health monitoring is ongoing by the community. Current ANU research is showing the positive benefit of the revegetation work in the landscape at the site, farm and landscape scale. The science is therefore indicating that yes, “rebirding” of the Holbrook landscape is underway, and HLN will continue to look to science to help us with the longer term outcomes for birds and tree health, and provide the feedback to us to adaptively manage our programs for the best outcomes.

The lessons and recommendations that come from the research are being applied directly to inform the design of subsequent programs such as the current major biodiversity project being managed by Holbrook Landcare – the “Slopes to Summit Bushlinks Project”.

Contacts: Chris Cumming (Executive Officer) and Kylie Durant,  Holbrook Landcare Network, PO Box 181 Holbrook NSW, Australia.  2644 Tel: +61 2 6036 3121, Email: kyliedurant@holbrooklandcare.org.au.

Paddock tree health field day, Holbrook, 2011.

Paddock tree health field day, Holbrook, 2011.

Before planting habitat blocks at Woomargama station, Holbrook.

Before planting habitat blocks at Woomargama station, Holbrook.

Stands of trees and shrubs established at Woomargama station, Holbrook.

Stands of trees and shrubs established at Woomargama station, Holbrook.

Regeneration of Lismore bushland cemetery, north coast NSW.

Key Words: bush regeneration, selective herbicides, transplanting, cemetery management

Since 2006, Lismore City Council’s Lismore Memorial Gardens (LMG) has been restoring and managing a 1.5ha  patch of regrowth Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis) grassy open forest in Goonellabah, north coast NSW – primarily for use as a bushland cemetery.  The site was part of a registered Koala corridor  and was in a highly weedy condition prior to the commencement of the project, with the understorey dominated by Lantana (Lantana camara) and most trees having at least one multi-stemmed Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora) encircling it.

Bush regeneration works. In 2006 the lantana was mechanically cleared and Camphor Laurels were stem-injected with glyphosate herbicide. After woody weed removal, the ground stratum rapidly responded with a germination flush of herbaceous weeds, mainly Blue Billygoat Weed (Ageratum houstonianum), Farmers Friends (Bidens pilosa) and Broad-leaved Paspalum (Paspalum mandiocanum) although some native herbaceous species were also regenerating, particularly Basket Grass (Oplismenus aemulus), Weeping Grass (Microlaena stipoides) and Kidney Weed (Dichondra repens).

Subsequent detailed spot spraying with herbicides was undertaken; in the first few years on a monthly basis by volunteers, and more recently by a horticulture-trained LMG staff member after some workplace tuition in bush regeneration methods.

1. Resilient areas. Herbaceous weed was systematically sprayed with broad-leaf selective herbicides (Dicamba/MCPA plus surfactant) or glyphosate.  Three larger patches consolidated with native species fairly rapidly, while other areas in poorer condition colonised with fewer species or took longer to convert to native dominance.  There are now 69 species on site that  are characteristic of this ecosystem (including 8 tree species, 15 grasses, 5 sedges, 8 twiners/climbers, 5 ferns and 1 moss).  About 20 of these species have been added to the list since the start of the project and all existing species have vastly increased in cover and density. The intermittent watercourse area regenerated over time with wetland herbaceous species largely including Persicaria spp. and Cyperus exaltatus.

View of central area of the site after control of woody weed. (Camphor chipmulch was initially spread in error then later removed to allow natural regeneration)

Same area two years later, showing extensive regeneration of native grasses and forbs

2. Highly weedy edge.  Standard bush regeneration approaches over at least 2 years in an edge site proved intractable due to high weed contamination and low native richness. A trial was conducted in 2009to see if scalping and revegetation (using transplanting and direct seeding ) could reduce the amount of weed control required and improve native vegetation establishment. This involved removal by a grader of 10 cm of the weedy topsoil, with the remaining subsoil broken up with a backhoe and hand raked. Sods containing multiples of 10 species were taken from the healthier parts of the cemetery and transplanted to the raked site in mid- to late-September 2009, resulting in a total of 145 plants in each of three zones (one transplanted only, one transplanted plus direct seeded with 10 species and one neither transplanted nor seeded). Seven weeks later, when germination from the sods had occurred, it was observed that 17 species (i.e. seven more) had been transplanted (Table 1.) Very few individual transplants died.

Top10cm of weedy topsoil removed and subsoil broken up before transplanting native grass and forb sods

Subsequent monitoring found that all the two scalped and revegetated zones, while requiring monthly weed control initially, had consolidated to a very low weed state by 9 months.  There was little visible difference between them except that the seeded one contained two more species not present in the unseeded site. Within 18 months, both zones had very high cover levels of native vegetation, particularly native grasses, and weed control demand was substantially lower than adjacent edge sites treated with conventional spot spray methods alone.  The non-transplanted or seeded zone remained with low species diversity and was more exposed to weed cover.  It has since become an access track and requires higher weed control inputs than the adajacent revegetated areas.

Nine months after transplanting. With some weed control requirement, natives now well established and commencing a process of steady recolonisation

Lessons learned. The bush regeneration treatments have converted a weed-dominated site to a recognisable Forest Red Gum grassy open forest with a diverse understorey. Cemetery operations are ongoing with the condition of the bushland showing an improvement with each year. Evidence of wildlife use of the habitat is increasing. This is due to ongoing management support, continuing volunteer inputs and the deployment of staff with some training in weed and bushland management.  Although a range of highly problematic weeds (including Asian Copperburr,  Acalypha australis, Prairie Grass, Bromus uniloides, and Hairy Commelina, (Commelina bengahlensis ) were initially not adequately addressed and are now requiring additional treatment; the site is now a pleasure to be in and is a wonderful demonstration site for not only restoration techniques but also the district’s grassy understorey species, once so widespread but now rarely conserved .

Contact: Tein McDonald 06 6682 2885 Email: teinm@ozemail.com.au – or Kris Whitney, Manager, Lismore Memorial Gardens, Email:  Kris.Whitney@lismore.nsw.gov.au

Grey Box grassy woodland restoration: Mandilla Reserve, Flagstaff Hill, South Australia

Key Words:  Minimal disturbance, bush regeneration, Eucalyptus microcarpa, volunteer, Bush For Life

The Site:  Grey Box (Eucalyptus microcarpa) Grassy Woodland is listed as an endangered ecological community under the EPBC Act 1999. This ecological community was once widespread on the drier edge of the temperate grassy eucalypt woodland belt of south-eastern Australia. In South Australia, this community occupies less than 3 percent of the area it once did before European settlement. One of the remaining suburban remnants of this community can be found in Mandilla Reserve, Flagstaff Hill, SA. The reserve is surrounded by suburban houses and remains under threat from weed and pest invasion, lack of recruitment of canopy species plus degradation associated with urban encroachment (pollution runoff, rubbish, excessive stormwater). Since 1996 the Bush or Life program together with the City of Onkaparinga have supported community volunteers to care for and manage the bush regeneration work within the reserve. The objective was to restore the highly degraded Grey Box remnant into a woodland community representing the unique diverse vegetation it once housed.

Geoff and Barbara Moss, volunteers at Mandilla Reserve

Works:   Two very dedicated community members adopted the site in 1996 and began visiting on average 3 times per week. They used minimal disturbance bushcare techniques to tackle a carpet of bulb weeds such as Sparaxis (Sparaxis bulbifera), Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae), Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) and Cape Tulip (Moraea flaccida) mixed with highly invasive annual and perennial grass species. In the surrounding degraded areas, some strategic planting was also carried out using Grey Box (Eucalyptus microcarpa), Sticky Hop Bush (Dodonaea viscosa) and Sweet Bursaria (Bursaria spinosa) and local sedge seedlings. Four areas were also hand direct seeded with native grasses to encourage ground cover recruitment and discourage weeds. All seed used was collected on site to ensure local provenance was maintained.

The flourishing Grey Box Grassy Woodland now found on the reserve

Success of the combination of natural regeneration and supplementary plantings

Results After thousands of volunteer hours, extensive regeneration of natives occurred on site. The volunteers’ work has transformed the reserve into a flourishing area of lilies, native grasses and understorey shrubs. Today, the vegetation in the reserve is virtually weed free and even native orchids are beginning to return. In addition, the area that the bushland covers has expanded as a result of the planting and direct seeding. Since these works, natural regeneration has also been observed of native sedges including Senecio, Carex, Juncus and native grasses.

Lessons learned:  Regular follow up for several years is vital to the success of any primary clearance work whether or not minimal disturbance techniques are used. Facilitated regeneration can be successfully used with bush regeneration providing it is strategic and complementary to and considerate of existing natural regeneration processes. Maintenance of the plantings or hand direct seeding is also vital to minimise competition from weeds and ensure their success.

Acknowledgements: This site is owned by the City of Onkaparinga Council and is managed in partnership with Trees For Life who train and support volunteers through its Bush For Life program. Thanks goes to Geoff and Barbara Moss, the site’s main volunteers.

Contact:  Jenna Currie, Bush For Life Regional Coordinator, Trees For Life jennac@treesforlife.org.au

Research Road Restoration, Strathalbyn, South Australia

Key Words: Minimal disturbance, bush regeneration, Eucalyptus fasciculosa, volunteer, Bush For Life.

The Site: In June 1996 Trees For Life (TFL), a community based not-for-profit organisation, established a volunteer bush regeneration site (known as a Bush For Life site) on a 1.4km long, one chain wide roadside remnant on Research Road about 6km south of Strathalbyn, SA.  At this stage the road was still being used as a vehicle track.  The vegetation was a very diverse Pink Gum (Eucalyptus fasciculosa) Open woodland with occasional mallee eucalypts, a shrub understorey, sedge and herbaceous groundcover and native grasses with many locally rare and vulnerable species including the nationally vulnerable Silver Daisy-bush (Olearia pannosa ssp. pannosa ).  The largest weed problem was Bridal Creeper  (Asparagus asparagoides) which blanketed the site in the cooler, wetter months.  Other threats to the understorey diversity included broadleaf weeds typical of the dry, agricultural landscapes of the lower Murray Plains.  These weeds included Pincushion(Scabiosa atropurpurea), Wild Sage (Salvia verbenaca) and Horehound (Marrubium vulgare ).

Diverse grassy understorey found on the site

Works:  Volunteers worked on a section of the 1,400m long, one chain wide road reserve, using minimal disturbance techniques. The regenerators very carefully removed Bridal Creeper, broad leaf weeds and weed grasses; but they had to contend with the continual degradation of the remaining area. It was really only a heavily rutted, two-wheel track suitable for dry weather use only, but was subjected to indiscriminate and illegal use through all seasons, including rubbish dumping, firewood collection and “bush-bashing”.

The Alexandrina Council closed the road to motor vehicles in September 2008 and it has been allowed to recover now for 4 years.  After the road closure, discussions between Council and TFL centred on whether to leave the vehicle track to regenerate by itself or to “rip” the track to fill in the ruts and promote germination. As ripping the track was predicted to have have promoted prolific broadleaf and grassy weed establishment, particularly given the close proximity of weedy agricultural land adjacent to the linear reserve, the BFL principle of minimal disturbance prevailed and the track was left to regenerate without other intervention.

Before road closure

Results: Today there is a proliferation of native species germinating on the track, with native regeneration on the track itself far outweighing the weed regeneration.

The ruts have filled with leaf litter and have encouraged the germination of spear grasses Austrostipa sp.) and wallaby grasses(Austrodanthonia sp.). As the volunteers discover new seedlings they protected them with branches; but regeneration has become so significant that this is no longer practical.  .

Many Mallee Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca acuminata) and Dryland Tea-tree (Melaleuca lanceolata) seedlings have germinated and are thriving in bare patches.  Many other species are also germinating, including: Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha), Hakea Wattle (Acacia hakeoides,) Sweet Bursaria (Bursaria spinosa), eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.), Ruby Saltbush (Enchylaena tomentosa), Climbing Saltbush ( Einadia nutans ssp. nutans), Old Man’s Beard (Clematis microphylla var. microphylla), Australian Bindweed (Convolvulus sp., and New Holland Daisy (Vittadinia sp.). Black-anther Flax-lily (Dianella revoluta, Mallee Blue-flower (Halgania cyanea,),  Rosemary Dampiera (Dampiera rosmarinifolia ) and Quandong ( Santalum acuminatum) are spreading from the sides onto the track. Areas where once a vehicle could drive have now been reduced to a narrow walking track between seedlings.

Native grasses regenerating on the road after closure

Treatment with Bridal Creeper rust (Puccinia myrsiphylli) began in 2004/2005 with wider and more intense applications applied every year from 2008. In the last couple of years rust has established itself over a large proportion of the site with very little flowering and fruiting detected during 2011.  Volunteers carefully treat plants at both ends of the site by ‘tonging’ with glyphosate  (i.e. using tongs with sponge tips as herbicide applicators) which has been very successful.  Through careful and consistent work, most of the broad-leaved weeds have been virtually removed from site, with only isolated germinations being detected and removed. One other weed – : Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae – is prolific on site; and has yet to be targeted for control.

Rabbits re-entered the site early in 2006 and by mid-2008 had bred up to occupy 15 locations on site. They caused significant damage to the native vegetation until controlled by baiting in March 2010. The increase in native grasses in the areas treated has been significant.

Lessons learned:  Four significant events have had the greatest effect on this turnaround: the road closure, the control of rabbits, the establishment of Bridal Creeper rust and most significantly the consistent hard work of the site’s Bush For Life volunteers.

Acknowledgements:  This site is owned by the Alexandrina Council and is managed in partnership with Trees For Life who train and support volunteers through its Bush For Life program.

Contact:  Sue Bradstreet.  Regional Coordinator, Trees For Life sueb@treesforlife.org.au

Volunteers Maggie Hincks and Dean Mortimer assisting the regeneration

Sustainable Streets Program, Byron Shire Council, NSW

Graeme Williams

Byron Shire Council’s ‘Sustainable Streets’ program aims to foster community-inspired sustainable behaviour change at a neighbourhood level. The program consists of regular neighbourhood gatherings and sustainability education workshops on topics, including: organic gardening; bush-friendly backyards; rainwater harvesting; solar power and energy efficiency; ethical shopping; green cleaning and, cooking with local produce.  .

Activities. In each participating neighbourhood, residents get together for sustainability workshops and build bonds in the neighbourhood, whilst raising points to fund their own local sustainability project. Currently seven streets in neighbourhoods across Byron and Tweed Shire Councils have participated in the Sustainable Streets program, including: Brunswick Heads; Mullumbimby; South Golden Beach; Mullum Creek; Murwillumbah; Cabarita Beach; Uki.

Analyses of the street’s consumption of energy, water and ecological footprint (i.e. the number of planets needed if everyone lived that lifestyle) were made prior to the program and calculated again after 6 months. (Results are shown in Table 1.)

Table 1. Decreases in energy, water and eco footprint of residents in participating Sustainable Streets in the Tweed-Byron area.

Location of Street Energy Water Eco Footprint
South Golden Beach 5.0% decrease 43.0% decrease 5.5% decrease
Uki 13.0% decrease 23.0% decrease 14.5% decrease
Mullumbimby Creek 13.5% decrease 62.0% decrease 21.0% decrease
Cabarita 26.0% decrease 23.0% decrease 20.5% decrease
Brunswick Heads 12.3% decrease 41.5% decrease 15.3% decrease

Results to date.

Energy. Participants have changed to Greenpower, with 8 families having installed their own solar power system. Other changes have been changing consumption patterns including turning off standbys, installing low wattage lights, wearing jumpers instead of turning on heaters, manual operation of electric hot water boosters, adjusting pool pumps minimum use or converting to a natural pool and insulative cooking.

Water. Five families have installed water tanks, others use shower timers, less frequent bigger clothes and dish washing loads.

Food and garden. Participants have converted to efficient composting or worm farms or installed poultry. Others meet more regularly for neighbourhood food and plant swaps and and buy more local food from a nearby organic farmer and at the Farmer’s markets.

Fuel emissions. Changes included reducing air travel, downsizing the family to more fuel efficient models, increased carpooling and pushbike use.

Environment. Nine families cleared their land of invasive weeds

Lessons. A major aspect of the project has been the strengthening of social connections in the neighbourhood, with many participants drawn into the program to ‘get to know their neighbours’. In an increasingly isolated society, the enhancement of social capital has been one of the most significant achievements of the program and platform to develop local sustainability. It is hoped that additional streets will be launched in the future.

Contact Byron Shire Council’s Sustainability Officer on 6626 7305. Also see http://www.byron.nsw.gov.au/sustainable-streets-program to access the ‘Sustainable Streets doco’ which can be borrowed from local libraries.

Sustainable Streets residents (Photo Byron Shire Council)

Brunswick Heads Sustainable Streets participants (Photo Byron Shire Council)

Geary’s Way Bushcarers – Success is in our sights

Key words: bush regeneration, community engagement, habitat restoration, urban bushland, follow up

Hugh Lander

Geary’s Way Bushcare team tends a small, but important area of recovering bushland in Kylie Avenue, Killara, NSW in the Local Government Area of Ku-ring-gai. In its “native” state the area would have been recognised as a Sydney Turpentine, Ironbark Forest (STIF) but in the century or so since the development of the suburb, the site had degraded to a point where it was highly infested by a wide range of weed species including Balloon Vine (Cardiospermum) and Small-leaved Privet (Ligustrum sinense).

Council records show that, over the last 40 years, several groups of concerned local residents have made attempts to rehabilitate the area and these well-meaning efforts have invariably ended in failure as interest waned or people moved on. However this latest attempt began in earnest in January 2008 and with the help of Ku-ring-gai Council staff, the Council’s Wildflower nursery at St Ives, several successful applications for funding to the Council’s Small Grants Scheme funded by the Environmental Levy and a small but very enthusiastic team of local residents – the project now really looks like it will succeed.

How the site looked before work started just 4 years ago – native trees being “swamped” by Balloon Vine

When the work began there was a deal of consternation in certain quarters because the site had been the subject of several previous attempts at rehabilitation – all of them had failed and each time it seemed that things just got worse. Madeira Vine (Anredera cordifolia), Lantana (Lantana camara) , Balloon Vine (Cardiospermum grandiflorum) and Morning Glory (Ipomoea indica) covered the site to a depth of 4 metres with Lantana and Balloon vine growing 7 – 10 metres up whatever native trees remained, although many of them had already died. Beneath all this nearly every weed known to Ku-ring-gai’s Bushcarers grew in profusion: Crofton weed (Ageratina adenophora), Fleabane (Conyza bonariensis), Onion Weed (Nothoscordum gracile), Senna (Senna x pendula), Slender Celery (Cyclospermum leptophyllum), Moth Vine (Araujia sericifera), Ehrharta (Ehrharta erecta), Tradescantia (Tradescantia fluminensis), African Ivy (Delairea odorata), Fishbone Fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Turkey Rhubarb (Acetosa saggitata) , Asparagus Fern (Asparagus aethiopicus.), Fumaria (Fumaria sp.) Nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) and a wide range of other exotic grasses and forbs.

A recent view of the site – ground cover is Native Geranium (Geranium solanderi)

But things have changed. The small group has made good progress in the 4 years since the current project started but we are well aware that there is a lot more to do. Natural regeneration is occurring all over the site, including Basket Grasses (Oplismenus spp.), Berry Saltbush (Einadia hastata), Bracken Fern (Pteridium esculentum), Bleeding Heart (Omalanthus populifolius), Common Hopbush (Dodonaea triquetra), Gahnia (Gahnia sieberana), Lesser Joyweed (Alternanthera denticulata), Right Angle Grass (Entolasia stricta) and White Dogwood (Ozothamnus diosmofolius). Some recent discoveries include a self-seeded Running Postman (Kennedia rubicunda), a Geebung (Persoonia sp.), Breynia oblongifolia and Pastel Flower (Pseuderanthemum variabile).

A Tawny Frogmouth resting under one of the Turpentine trees planted on site

Wildlife is returning. Swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor) have been seen on the site as well as, Eastern Whipbirds (Psophodes olivaceus) a Tawny Frogmouth (Podargus strigoides), Satin Bower Bird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) Brush Turkeys (Alectura lathami), and recently a male Lyre Bird (Menura novaehollandiae) and male and female Satin Bower Birds.

A Bower Bird’s bower on site

Outcomes and lessons learned. One of the lessons learned by the Geary’s Way team (comparing our success with the efforts of the past) is that groups intending to work on bushland site rehabilitation should not open up more of the site than they can reasonably follow up with limited resources and time. To do so will only end in failure with the inevitable result that the weeds return in even greater numbers than before.

 

Our Trainer, Liz Mackay, delivering her Geary’s Way Bushcare Site Assessment to members of the team

 

We feel that, as a group, we have made real progress. We have worked hard, we have formed a team of (bush)caring locals, we have learned a huge amount (one of the things that we have learned is that there is still so much more to learn), we have gained a real sense of achievement and we want to continue to look after our small site, to nurture it, for the native animals that will benefit from our work, for the native vegetation that is now returning, of its own “free will” to the site and for the generations of Australians who will come after us.

The Geary’s Way Bushcare Team (L-R): Di Harry, Marilyn Algeo, Sue Bardwell, Hugh Lander, Alan Bardwell, Barry Kirtley, Liz Mackay, Barbara Walsh and Ian Coffey

Contact: Hugh Lander, Geary’s Way Bushcare Group Site Convenor; 0411 7547349.

Yarrilinks: a vital bridge between city and country

Key words: community volunteers, environmental repair, revegetation, multiculturalism

Rae Talbot

A successful one-off revegetation project in the Yarriambiack Shire, Victoria, has led to ‘Yarrilinks’ – an annual revegetation event that combines environmental benefit, community involvement, cultural exchange,  lots of fun and friendship. Yarrilinks is one of several Wimmera Biolink Plantout events which happen throughout the year across the region. The plantouts build on broader biolink programs coordinated by Wimmera Catchment Management Authority as part of the Federal Government’s Caring for our Country program.

Betty Barry of Minyip is a regular host of volunteers at Yarrilinks. Mrs Barry is pictured with Adut Chol, one of the chefs from the not-for-profit restaurant chain ‘Lentil As Anything’ who help cater the Saturday night feast at Yarrilinks each year.

The unique feature of Yarrilinks is its partnerships with the Melbourne-based Adult Multicultural Education Services and Sudanese Australian Integrated Learning programs. This offers an opportunity for new residents of Australia, often refugees from wars in their own countries, to engage with local families closely working within a rural Australian environment.  Through this event, held each August, local families and new arrivals learn from each other, experiencing new cultures whilst building up the environment.

The project works by local families hosting the visitors.  Between 30 and 40 local families participate each year, with about 500 visitors being hosted from 24 different nationalities over the past 12 years.  The weekend community events have enabled the planting of 120,000 plants on 40 different sites on farms and roadsides.

On 6-7 August this year, paddocks in the Yarriambiack Shire came alive with volunteers from the local area and the Melbourne-based Adult Multicultural Education Services and Sudanese Australian Integrated Learning programs. The 2011 weekend was the 13th Yarrilinks event.

Contact: People wanting to find out more about Yarrilinks can phone Rae Talbot at Wimmera CMA on (03) 5382 1544 or email wca@wcma.vic.gov.au

Mount Gibraltar Reserve – Community bush regeneration project (Southern Highlands NSW)

Jane Lemann

This 130 hectare reserve in the Southern Highlands of NSW is on a 150 million year old volcanic intrusion supporting the Wet Sclerophyll EEC Mount Gibraltar Forest. The Bowral Trachyte rock was quarried for 100 years to supply stone for public buildings, monuments, kerb stones and railway ballast. The disused quarries are listed by the NSW National Trust and are under consideration by the NSW Heritage Council.

This major disturbance followed by neglect allowed severe invasion by environmental weeds into the forest surrounding the quarries in this urban island Reserve; and at the time the project started, the weeds had smothered the native ground cover and prevented canopy replacement. Mount Gibraltar Forest is dominated by Eucalyptus fastigata, E.radiata, E.piperita, and E smithi and has a sparse shrub layer of Notelaea venosa, Exocarpus cupressiformis, Pittosporum undulatum, Hedycarya angustifolia, Acacia melonoxylon, Melaleuca hypericifolia, Leptospermum brevipes and Persoonia linearis. The forest has a particularly rich ground cover of ferns, as well as a range of forbs and grasses.

Before: Ivy, Tree Ivy and assorted shrub weeds dominate the understorey (Photo: Jane Lemann)

After 2 years: regeneration included Blechnum cartilaginium, Doodia aspera, Dianella caerulea, Themeda australis, Leucopogon lanceolatum, Clematis glycinoides, Eustrephus Latifolius, Tylophora barbata and Eucalyptus fastigata seedlings (Photo: Jane Lemann)

For the last 18 years volunteer bush regenerators have worked weekly, under the auspices of the owner, Wingecarribee Shire Council. Work has been carried out to a plan working systematically down the contours removing the invaders that have escaped from local gardens including: Ivy, Honeysuckle, Blackberry, Holly, Privet, Barberry, Hawthorn, Cotoneaster Spindleberry, Buddleja. Vinca, Montbretia and Agapanthus, Sycamores and the ubiquitous Pine trees.
At the same time volunteers campaigned for better environmental management by the local council which has introduced an environmental levy on rates and provides Bushcare support to local groups. Careful records are kept of volunteer hours and matching grants are sought for employment of qualified contractors to assist with the steep and difficult areas. To date the group has contributed 33,700 hours of voluntary work to the project and attracted funding of $755,117.

Before: Ivy, Privet and Holly smother the ground (Photo: Jane Lemann)

After 6 months regeneration included: Pteridium esculentum, Stellaria flaccida, Tylophora barbata, Dinaella caerulea, Lomandra longifolia, and Poa labillardiera (Photo: Jane Lemann)

Fortunately there is a strong and viable seed bank in the fertile soil so each site is checked after six months and thereafter at increasing intervals as the regeneration gathers integrity. In normal weather conditions, a diverse assemblage will have developed within 2 years. From replacement Eucalypts to numerous orchid species the results are rewarding and prove that the principles of Bush Regeneration are effective.

Mount Gibraltar volunteers removing Ivy. Piles of shrub weeds are visible and Ivy on the tree trunks has been cut. (Photo: Jane Lemann)

Fauna and Flora surveys have been carried out and the Endangered Ecological Community is currently being assessed for National listing. Infra-structure is being upgraded gradually for visitor enjoyment of the Reserve. The volunteers have produced a magnificent hard-cover, full colour book about the social, industrial and natural history of the Reserve: The Gib: Mount Gibraltar, Southern Highlands. (a reprint was recently funded by the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment Management Authority and is available from the group and local shops) to inform residents, visitors and students about this special place.

Contact: Jane Lemann, Volunteer Supervisor, Acting Secretary. lemann@acenent.com.au