Key words: Dry rainforest, regeneration, Anredera cordifolia, long term project, flying-foxes.
Rainforest regeneration works at the 11.5 ha dry rainforest remnant, Rotary Park, Lismore, commenced in in June 1985 under the leadership of Keith King, the then Parks and Gardens Supervisor for Lismore City Council, and inspired by the success of John Stockard at Wingham Brush.
The site, surrounded by residential areas and bordered by a main road, was considered (prior to treatment) so degraded by weed vines that many considered it beyond redemption. The canopy was infested with vines including Madeira Vine (Anredera cordifolia), Asparagus africanus and A. plumosus and Morning glory (Ipomoea spp.) (Fig 1). Within the forest, the ground was blanketed by Tradescantia (Tradescantia fluminensis) and Madiera Vine tuberlings, with Large- and Small-leaved Privet (Ligustrum spp.) dispersed throughout more degraded areas and edges and gaps often dominated by Lantana (Lantana camara).
Works and results. The project initially trialed minimal disturbance techniques promoted by the bush regeneration movement in Sydney but soon found that higher levels of disturbance were needed to trigger regeneration and render the tuberlings of Madeira Vine and other weed susceptible to herbicide spray. Adapting the Wingham Method to local conditions, Keith King and the regeneration team led by Rosemary Joseph radically transformed the rainforest into a relatively healthy dry rainforest patch over a period of 10-15 years, although primary work in some parts of the site is still not completed.
Lessons learned. While the project has been highly successful, some problems have arisen that reflect the vulnerability of small areas of forest in a matrix of cleared land. Populations of Grey-headed Flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) and Black Flying-fox (P. alecto) established roosts in the forest some years after recovery was apparent but before the project was completed. This added significantly to the work load as it increased the density and number of weed species, with new species including by Flying-foxes including Giant Devil’s Fig (Solanum chrysotrichum) and tropical fruits such as Guava (Psidium guajava). When the trees were stripped of foliage by the flying-foxes, the trees were then used as roots by White Ibis (Threskiornis molucca). This contributed additional ammonia which resulted in deteriorated working conditions for regenerators and limited their ability to complete the primary works. While the project remains on a maintenance budget and most of the forest is holding its restored condition well, current budgets have been insufficient to complete the primary work on all parts of the site.
Acknowledgements. The site is managed by Lismore City Council who have funded the project since its inception.
Contact: Rosemary Joseph c/o Lismore City Council Martin.Soutar@lismore.nsw.gov.au