Category Archives: Sclerophyll communities

Brush pack experiment in restoration: How small changes can avoid leakage of resources and underpin larger scale improvements for restoration and rehabilitation

David Tongway and John Ludwig

Key words: Landscape Function Analysis, biological foci, water harvesting, desertification, erosion

The following experiment illustrates how relatively small changes to redirect water flow can capture water and other biological resources at a restoration site. However the process occurs not only at the micro scale but cumulates to site and landscape scales, making it a primary underpinning principles of a method of site analysis, Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) that has been applied across Australia and other countries to assist land managers counter desertification by redesigning processes that regulate the flow of resources, minimise losses and foster cycling. See http://members.iinet.net.au/~lfa_procedures/

The LFA mindset and methodology involve a purposeful change of focus from listing the biota/ species present or absent at a site, to an examination of the degree to which biophysical processes deal with vital resources with respect to stresses arising from management and climatic events.

Fig 1 before

Fig. 1. Before: bare, crusted, low OC soil, erosion, and high water runoff mainitained by low but persistent, set-stock grazing by sheep and kangaroos.

Fig 2. after treatment

Fig. 2. The restoration treatment was simply to build brush-packs across the contour to trap water, soil and plant litter, slowing overland outflow. This also prevented the grazing down to ~1cm. Grass plants were able to maintain about 10cm of photosynthetic tissue.

Fig 4

Fig 3. After 7 years. Clearly the soil properties have improved the ‘habitat quality’ for the target vegetation.

Fig 5 14 years after

Figure 4. After 14 years, native vegetation re-established.

Fig 3. detail of bushpack after 3 years.

Fig 5. Detail of the brushpack after 3 years showing micro-structures capable of slowing water and accumulating resources.

1. tongway table

ANOTHER KEY OBSERVATION RELEVANT TO RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION

Where resources are not captured or leak out of a system, patchiness will become evident as resources self-organise around foci of accumulation – creating ‘patches’ where resources accumulate and ‘interpatches’ from which they ‘leak’.

The Golden Rule for rehabilitation is: “Restore/replace missing or ineffective processes in the landscape in order to improve the soil habitat quality for desired biota.”

Fig 6. Grassy sward healthy

Fig. 6. A grassy sward patch where the grass plants are close enough together that the water run-off is unable to generate enough energy to redistribute the grassy litter, which is evenly distributed. (The slope is from top to bottom in the image.)

There is also no evidence of sediment transport (not visible in this image). This is because of the tortuous path and short inter-grass distance. It would be possible to derive the critical grass plant spacing for “sward” function in any landscape, taking into account slope, aspect and soil texture.

Fig 7. Grassland in patch-interpatch mode, due to exceeding the critical runoff length for erosion initiation. (Slope is from top to bottom.)

Note that litter and sediment have both been washed off the inter-patch and have been arrested by a down-slope grass patch. Note the orientation of the grassy litter strands.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nowanup: Healing country, healing people

Keith Bradby, Eugene Eades, Justin Jonson, Barry Heydenrych.

Key words: Noongar, Gondwana Link, cultural restoration, ecological restoration, design

Introduction. Greening Australia’s 754 ha Nowanup property was one of the first purchased with donor funds to help achieve the Gondwana Link programme’s goal of reconnecting native habitats across south-western Australia (Fig 1). The ecological work of Gondwana Link is underpinned by the involvement of people living within the region’s landscapes.

Nowanup (Fig 2) is a visually compelling place, with rising breakaway mesas, broad sweeping plains, and views south down the Corackerup valley and south west to the Stirling Range. Its remaining native vegetation systems are dominated by mallee shrublands, mallet and moort woodlands and banksia heathlands. It contains large populations of the locally endemic eucalypts Corackerup Moort (Eucalyptus vesiculosa) and Corackerup Mallet (E. melanophitra) and it is expected that additional rare flora species will be found. It also supports populations of a range of threatened fauna species including Malleefowl (Leipoa ocellata), Western Whipbird (Psophodes nigrogularis), Shy Groundwren (Hylacola cauta whitlocki), Crested Bellbird (Oreoica gutturalis gutturalis) and Black-gloved wallaby (Macropus irma). The original native vegetation remains in the upper section of the property (Fig 3), though much of this area has been cleared and burnt for farming, but never farmed. The farmland areas are now largely replanted.

Fig 1 Fitz-Stirling Corridor

Fig. 1. Nowanup is part of the broader Gondwana Link Program

Fig 2. Nowanup rock features

Fig. 2. Nowanup has visually compelling rock features and expansive landscapes.

Cultural significance. The groups involved in Gondwana Link support a range of social and cultural activities involving donors, farmers, government agencies, research bodies, industry groups and various landcare and natural resource management groups. Primary among these are the Aboriginal People, which for Nowanup is the local Noongar community.

Many Noongar elders knew the area well before it was cleared for farming, and speak of its cultural significance. Cultural mapping on the property has underlined that significance by locating a number of cultural sites and concentrations of artefacts. After purchase in 2004 the property was made available to the Noongar community, to support their aspirations, and Noongar leader Eugene Eades resides on Nowanup. Initially employed by Greening Australia as an Indigenous Engagement Officer, and now running camps and events at Nowanup as a Noongar led program, Eugene liaises with educational, corrections and welfare institutions and agencies to coordinate a range of educational and rehabilitation programmes. Eugene has also managed, with a team of young Noongar men, construction of a ‘Meeting Place’ that has assumed considerable significance for the local Noongar community (Fig 4).

Located in the heart of the Fitz-Stirling section of Gondwana Link, with its striking scenic qualities, a powerful sense of place, basic building infrastructure, cultural ‘Meeting Place’, and resident Noongar manager, Nowanup has become the focus for educational and cultural activities and programmes in the Fitz-Stirling, including an increasing level of Noongar involvement in the restoration plantings. These have included planting seedlings during community days and the expert planting of thousands of seedlings by four Noongar boys undertaking an eight week justice diversion program under Eugene Eades.

Fig 3 Nowanup aerial 2014. Courtesy Airpix

Fig. 3. The upper section of the property contains remnant or regrowth native vegetation, with the rest actively farmed prior to the revegetation

Approximately 340ha of the northern portion of the property is remnant bushland, with approximately 350 hectares of cleared land to the south, which has now been largely revegetated, including with trials of local species with commercial potential.

Some of the earlier plantings reflected a low-diversity revegetation approach, which was later improved across Gondwana Link plantings to better reflect the goal of ecological restoration modelled on local reference sites (see Monjebup summary). Nowanup’s early revegetation efforts were also impacted by difficulties in achieving good germination of a number of species on the sites difficult clay soils, with the result that many areas are dominated by a few species of eucalypts and acacias. These have been enriched recently by in-fill plantings which also demonstrate an improvement in the standard of work over 10 years. This has included improvements in the agronomy of direct seeding techniques (by Geoff Woodall), such as using direct drilling instead of scalping, that Greening Australia undertook in 2014, and which has subsequently been more widely used. In addition, integration of cultural and ecological aspects was advanced through a 2015 direct seeding project collaboratively designed by Eugene Eades and restoration practitioner Justin Jonson, which integrates indigenous cultural meaning and values into an ecological restoration project (Fig 4). The planting is only a year old, but the integration of cultural values and the sites biophysical conditions into one inclusive design is a powerful and innovative step forward. The site has been coined ‘Karta-Wongkin-Jini’ by Mr. Eades, which means ‘place where people come together’, and , with fantastic germination to date, is on track to serve as an important demonstration of culturally informed ecological restoration in practice.

Fig 4. Cultural EcoRestoration Systems 2015

Fig. 4. Eco-restoration design by Eugene Eades and Justin Jonson

Fig5. Cultural presentation Nowanup

Fig. 5. Schoolchildren enjoying a cultural presentation at the ‘Meeting Place’

Healing nature, healing people. Greening Australia was committed from the outset to engagement of the Noongar community in its operation in the Fitz-Stirling section of Gondwana Link. A cultural benefit of the project that was largely unforeseen but which developed rapidly has been the realization of the opportunities Nowanup presents for a range of programmes that support young Noongars at risk, as well as for rehabilitation and respite care. Eugene Eades has already supervised several Court arranged and respite care programmes on the property, and there is intense interest from a wide range of organisations in utilizing Eugene and Nowanup for running an extended range of programmes in the future (Fig 5). A project focused on the healing of country has great potential also for healing people.

The running of such programmes is out of scope for a conservation NGO whose mission is the transformation of landscape at scale. The programmes to date have made do with the very basic infrastructure that currently exists on Nowanup, with Greening plus supporters and donors subsidizing Eugene’s role in managing the programmes. Even while operating on this ad hoc basis, the programmes have proved Nowanup’s enormous potential for expanded cultural and social endeavours in the future. Greening Australia is keen to contribute to a transition that will allow for Nowanup’s full potential for such purposes to be realized.

Fig 6. Noongar planters by Ron D'Raine

Fig 6. Elder Aden Eades, Eugene Eades and Bill Woods lead a community planting day on Nowanup

Issues and Options. The framework plantings and larger scale direct seeding on Nowanup is now essentially complete, with the last significant works having been undertaken in 2015 – although infill plantings and seeding will occur as funding allows (Fig 6). From this point on, continuing conservation management of the property is required to ensure its contribution to ecological health in the Fitz-Stirling increases as the restoration work matures. With Greening Australia’s key focus on ecological restoration, there is no reason why properties that have been restored should not be subsequently divested to alternative ownership, so long as the necessary conservation covenants and management arrangements are in place. With Nowanup this would ideally be a body representative of local Noongar community interests. With both the original habitat areas and the revegetation and restoration areas already under protective covenant, the agreements and arrangements can be put in place to provide certainty for investment by corrections and/or welfare agencies into the infrastructure required to run properly-resourced programmes on the property. Nowanup will then be better placed to realize its full potential in healing country and people.

Funding: Revegetation costs were largely met through the Reconnections program, funded by Shell Australia, the Commonwealth Government’s Biodiversity Fund and 20 Million Trees Programme. Eugene Eades funds the cultural and social programs as a private business. Gondwana Link Ltd and Greening Australia provide support as needed.

Contact: Keith Bradby, Gondwana Link. PO Box 5276, Albany WA 6332. Phone: +61 (0)8 9842 0002. Email: bradby@gondwanalink.org

Read also EMR project summaries:

 

Habitat restoration at Snowy Adit, Kosciuszko National Park

Habitat restoration at Snowy Adit, Kosciuszko National Park

Key words: revegetation, habitat construction, montane, high altitude,fauna.

Introduction. Island Bend Downstream Spoil Dump, known as ‘Snowy Adit’, is one of approximately 30 former-‘Snowy Scheme’ sites in Kosciuszko National Park (KNP) that have undergone rehabilitation and restoration treatments in the last 10 years. The work is part of a program to remediate environmental risks associated with large volumes of rock dumped following underground blasting of tunnels and the cutting of benches for aqueduct pipelines constructed during the former hydro-electric scheme. At Snowy Adit, up to 950,000m3 of rock spoil was excavated and dumped. The footprint of the site is roughly 11 hectares, about 750m long and 150m wide.

Snowy Adit precinct 2008

Fig 1. Snowy Adit precinct 2008

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Fig 2. Snowy Adit precinct 2015

The site sits at an altitude of 1000m on the northern bank of the Snowy River at the junction with the Gungarlin River. The surrounding landscape is relatively intact, providing a reference ecosystem for the project, and occurs in a transitional zone between montane and sub-alpine vegetation. The dominant overstorey species is Ribbon Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) with the sporadic occurrence of Candlebark (Eucalyptus rubida). The mid layer is dominated by wattle (Acacia species), and the shrub to ground layer includes Narrow-leaf Bitter Pea (Daviesia mimosoides), Burgan (Kunzea ericoides), Bidgee-widgee (Aceana nove-zelandiae), Carex (Carex appressa) and native grass (Poa helmsii). Within the rehabilitation site prior to works, the dominant species were weeds, aside from several shrubs of Burgan and the occasional Ribbon Gum.

Rehabilitation at Snowy Adit aims to restore a level of ecological function and stability by reducing erosion and re-establishing native vegetation. This gives long term protection to adjoining waterways and reduces the risk of weed invasion and habitat loss to the adjoining national park (Figs 1 and 2).

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Fig 3. Earthworks 2008

 

Integrating with natural regeneration on site

Fig 4. Integrating with existing vegetation on site

Works undertaken. The site was split into three management zones, with zones one and two progressively rehabilitated between 2008 and 2010, and zone 3 retained as an ongoing rock resource and storage area with some buffer planting. The rehabilitation techniques employed at each zone included:

  1. Earthworks to reduce steep embankments, provide track and bench access across the site for revegetation works and provide for future potential water flow across the site with a series of shallow swales and pond depressions (Figs 3 and 4);
  2. Ground disturbance to address highly compacted nature of existing surface;
  3. Removal of waste materials where possible – this included the recycling of 260 tonnes of metal that had been buried/dumped across the site;
  4. Addition of Coarse Woody Debris, primarily in windrows to provide wind shelter and thatch to hold straw and create microclimate. This material was sourced from logs and tree crowns removed during local trail clearing;
  5. Addition of compost production and water crystals to individual planting holes
  6. Planting 110,000 tubestock of 11 species from locally collected seed and cuttings in three stages;
  7. Mulching with rice straw;
  8. Weed control prior to pre works;
  9. Spreading of woodchip in weed prone areas such as access tracks and temporary nursery location.

After high initial browsing on planted seedlings by wallabies, deer and rabbits, most planting areas were progressively fenced. The steel 1.8 metre high fence had rabbit-proof netting to 1.05m high with a 300mm skirt pinned/rocked to ground, and hinge joint wire to 1.8m (Photo 4). Once in place, almost 100 percent plant establishment success was achieved.

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Fig 5. Flowering Acacia influencing nutrient status

Results to date. Soils and soil function. Monitoring has shown that three years after revegetation, soil infiltration, nutrient cycling and leaf litter values are still lower than the reference site, but soil stability measures are currently higher, possibly due to the role of young plants in binding the soil. Litter levels have understandably decreased since the original application of mulch and the amount of exposed rock has increased. It is expected that the growth of the revegetation will produce increasing amounts of litter and reverse this trend.

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Fig 6. Development of planted vegetation 6 years on

Vegetation. BioMetric http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/papers/BioMetricOpManualV3-1.pdf was used to assess the condition of the vegetation along a 30m transect at 4 years after planting. This showed that the plantings had not yet developed to overstorey height but many of the Ribbon Gum had grown to midstorey height, providing a cover of 7.5%. The ground cover was mostly litter (52%) and rock (52%) with 2% bare ground. Native shrub cover of the ground layer was 20%, grasses 2% and forbs 8%. No exotic species were encountered along the transect so the total of 30% plant cover in the ground layer was all native. The number of woody stems was high (990) and similar to the control site. The level of exotic species incursion to the site was very low.

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Fig 7. High levels of coarse woody debris on site

Fauna. Rehabilitation works have greatly improved the habitat values of Snowy Adit, as evidence by increasing fauna recorded at the site. Pre- and post-treatment surveys have shown that, 5 years after revegetation commenced, the site is now used by at least sixty vertebrate species – 36 birds, 17 mammals, four reptiles and three frogs. Thirty-nine species were not recorded in the original 2006 survey, with 19 species (15 birds, two mammals and two frogs) attributed as a direct result of the rehabilitation works undertaken since 2006. Five threatened species were recorded in the rehabilitation area, with one additional listed species, the Powerful Owl (Ninox strenua), located in immediately adjacent forest. These threatened species were the Eastern Pygmy-possum (Cercartetus nanus), Eastern Bent-winged Bat (Miniopterus orianae oceanensis), Eastern False Pipistrelle (Falsistrellus tasmaniensi ), Gang-gang Cockatoo (Callocephalon fimbriatum ) and Flame Robin (Petroica phoenicea). The first three threatened species were not located in the original 2006 survey. The most outstanding discovery was the location of four Eastern Pygmy-possums within the fenced area of the rehabilitation area. Sixteen bird species now appeared to be either resident or regular visitors within the plantings rather than occasionally ranging into the area from adjacent forest; with nests of five species located. Several species were observed feeding flying dependent young juveniles within the planting area – such as the White-browed Scrubwren (Sericornis frontalis) and Rufous Whistler (Pachycephala rufiventris).

It is considered likely that, over time, some 29 species (23 birds, four reptiles and two mammal species) which were only recorded in adjacent forest and control sites in the current or original surveys will recolonise the area as the plantings continue to grow.

Lessons learned and future directions. The attention to detail in site preparation to create soil surface roughness and niches and microclimates in denuded and exposed sites at Snowy Adit is likely to explain the level of success achieved to date in terms of vegetation and habitat development. Constantly revisiting the site has also played an important role as it allowed measures to be taken to address overgrazing by both native and pest species. Taking the time to plan the works but also having flexibility to adapt and seek opportunities reaped benefits. A fortuitous supply of unwanted coarse woody debris and woodchip stockpiled at a nearby work depot also assisted with the establishment and growth of plants, controlled weeds and accelerated the return of native fauna using the for site as habitat.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies. The Rehabilitation of Former Snowy Scheme Sites Program was established from Snowy Hydro Limited funding and is managed by the Landforms and Rehabilitation Team in National Parks and Wildlife Service, NSW. Nicki Taws (Greening Australia Capital Region, Project Manager) conducted the vegetation monitoring. Martin Schulz conducted the fauna surveying and reporting.

Contact. Gabriel Wilks, Environmental Officer, National Parks & Wildlife Service NSW, PO Box 471 Tumut 2729, phone 062 69477070, Gabriel.wilks@environment.nsw.gov.au; Elizabeth MacPhee, Rehabilitation Officer, National Parks & Wildlife Service NSW, PO Box 471 Tumut 2729, Tel: +61 2 69477076, Email: Elizabeth.macphee@environment.nsw.gov.au.

Also read full EMR feature:Rehabilitation of former Snowy Scheme sites in Kosciusko National Park

Watch video short presentation by Liz MacPhee

Watch video short description of planting techniques Liz MacPhee

Watch video rediscovery of Smoky Mouse on rehab site Gabriel Wilks

EMR summary Restoration of Bourke’s Spoil Dump #2: https://site.emrprojectsummaries.org/2013/08/22/bourkes-gorge-spoil-dump-2-restoration-kosciuszko-national-park-2/

EMR summary Jindabyne Valve House Restoration: https://site.emrprojectsummaries.org/2013/08/20/jindabyne-valve-house-kosciuszko-national-park-nsw-2/

EMR summary Yarrangobilly Seed and Straw Production Area: https://site.emrprojectsummaries.org/2013/08/17/yarrangobilly-native-seed-and-straw-farm/

Snowy Adit project recovery wheel (National Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration in Australia)>

ATTRIBUTE CATEGORY RECOVERY LEVEL (1-5) EVIDENCE FOR RECOVERY LEVEL (derived from transect data)
ATTRIBUTE 1. Absence of threats
Over-utilization

 

5 Site is no longer utilized and is dedicated to conservation.
Invasive species

 

5 Very low potential for invasion
Pollution

 

5 Nil sources of pollution
ATTRIBUTE 2. Physical conditions
Substrate physical

 

5 Site still very rocky but within range of natural variation compared to reference.  Likely self-organizing.
Substrate chemical 5 Similar to reference.
Water chemo-physical

 

5 soil infiltration, nutrient cycling and leaf litter values still lower than reference, but soil stability higher. Likely self-organizing.
ATTRIBUTE 3. Species composition
Desirable plants

 

5 Greater than 60% of local indigenous trees, shrubs, grasses and forbs establishing. Likely self-organizing.
Desirable animals

 

5 Prior bare site now has > 60 vertebrate species (36 bird, 17 mammal, 4 reptile and 3 frog. (5 Threatened.)
No undesirable species

 

4.5 Very low weed status.
ATTRIBUTE 4. Community structure
All vegetation strata

 

5 Trees at midstorey height (7.5% cover) shrub (20% cov) grasses (2% cov) and forbs (8% cov)
All trophic levels

 

5 Trophic structure evident with very high faunal recolonization including Powerful Owl nearby
Spatial mosaic

 

5 Similar to reference.  Likely self-organizing.
ATTRIBUTE 5. Ecosystem function
Productivity, cycling etc

 

5 High levels of litter (52%) and evidence of decomposition. Likely self-organizing.
Habitat & plant-animal interactions 5 High levels of woody debris, nesting by birds and mammals. Flowering and fruiting evidence of pollination
Resilience, recruitment etc 4.5 Likely seed banks building and some recruitment of shrubs and herbs. Trees old enough for resprouting.
ATTRIBUTE 6. External exchanges
Landscape flows

 

5 Site now fully integrated into extensive, high quality natural area
Gene flows

 

5 Likely restored
Habitat links

 

4.5 Likely restored although fencing yet to be removed

 

 

Stewartdale Nature Refuge koala habitat restoration in South Ripley, south east Queensland

Key Words: reconstruction, assisted regeneration, planning, koalas, conservation

Introduction: The Stewartdale Nature Refuge is located in South Ripley, south east Queensland on private land owned by the Sporting Shooters Association of Australia (SSAA). The 969 ha block contains live shooting ranges, large open areas dominated by pasture grasses, a substantial lagoon frequented by many bird species and extensive natural areas. The area being restored is 211 ha of dry sclerophyll vegetation, containing a number of Regional Ecosystems (REs) being restored through large scale planting (reconstruction) and assisted regeneration approaches. Its conservation value is heightened by the fact that it connects to the Karawatha Flinders Corridor, the largest remaining stretch of open eucalypt forest in south-east Queensland.

Condition ranges from large degraded areas (i.e. pasture) to native vegetation that contains both regrowth and remnant dry sclerophyll. All areas were impacted by varying levels of weed infestation due to previous clearing and ongoing disturbance from cattle grazing. Natural disturbances such as regular fire and periodic floods have also contributed to disturbance at the site. More than 30 weed species impact the project area at varying levels and the species and impacts vary with the condition of the land. Open areas were dominated by pasture grass such as Setaria (Setaria sphacelata) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) in addition to fast growing annuals, although infestations of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Prickly Pear (Opuntia stricta) and large clumping Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) also required significant control efforts. In more forested areas (and underneath isolated remnant trees) weed species included Lantana (Lantana camara), Creeping Lantana (Lantana montevidensis), Corky Passionfruit (Passiflora suberosa), Easter Cassia (Senna pendula var. glabrata), Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) and exotic grasses, annuals and groundcovers.

The aim of the project is to restore, native plant communities present within the Stewartdale project site to support local koala populations. Our goals are to:

  • Repair native vegetation including the structure, integrity and diversity to support koala populations
  • Strengthen the resilience and regenerative capacity of native vegetation
  • Restore and expand native regrowth vegetation by controlling weeds
  • Maintain the project site so weeds do not negatively impact the development and recovery of native vegetation
  • Protect drainage lines, gullies and slopes from erosion
  • Protect and enhance the water quality of Bundamba Lagoon
  • Construct fauna friendly fencing across the site with the aim of protecting planted trees from herbivory
  • Reduce the risk of fire moving through the site and impacting restoration works by conducting strategic slashing activities to reduce fuel loads.

Planning. A restoration plan was developed after detailed site assessments and negotiations with the landholder, land manager and state government were finalised integrating Nature Refuge conditions and current land use and future management requirements. The site was divided into zones and sub-zones to assist directing works including applying a range of restoration approaches – i.e. assisted regeneration and reconstruction (‘revegetation’) and several planting models and species mosaics to different parts of the site. Detailed maps were produced for each zone and included information such as the location of all tracks, fences, assisted regeneration zones, wildlife corridors, planting areas according to each RE and numbers of species and plants to be installed per zone. The plan also included detailed information on restoration approaches; weed control at all stages of the project; seed collection and propagation; site preparation including the specifications and location of all fencing, tracks, rip lines and areas of concern (i.e. identified hazards across the site); how to carry out all works in each zone; site maintenance requirements for 5-7 years; and monitoring requirements.

PP2b after site preparation.JPG

Fig 2. Preparation for planting  at Stewartdale Nature Refuge.

PP2b after planting Mar 2016

Fig 2. After planting to support local Koala population, Mar 2016.

Works to date. Site preparation commenced with the collection of seed from on and around the wider property and surrounds ensuring that all species to be planted were collected from a minimum of 10 widely spaced parent trees. Primary weed control started with the control of weeds in the 65 ha of assisted regeneration zones and the control of other woody weeds across reconstruction areas in preparation for slashing and other activities. More than 18 km of fauna friendly fencing (i.e. no barbed wire) was installed to protect planted stock from browsing by large herds of macropods and cows. Two large corridors were retained for fauna to reach Bundamba lagoon from different parts of the regional corridor as it is an important resource for many local and migratory fauna. Slashing across open areas was commenced and followed by the installation of rip lines to alleviate soil compaction and assist efficient planting activities. Weeds and pasture grasses were then sprayed out along all rip lines. 114 000 koala food and shelter trees were planted according to the RE for each section and according to the local conditions (i.e. whether it was low lying, on a ridge or near infrastructure). Some additional frost resistant and local Acacia species were also added to particularly frost prone areas to assist the development of a canopy and the protection of developing vegetation.

The 114 000 tubestock were installed over a 7 week period with the last stems being planted in April 2015. All trees were fertilised and watered at the time of planting and where possible, slashed grass spread across the rip lines to assist retaining moisture and slowing weed regrowth. (Follow-up watering was applied to all planted stock between September and October 2015) Nearly 2000 (1 m high) tree mesh guards were installed to protect planted stock in fauna corridors.

Series shot 1.1

Careful spot spraying to reduce weed while protecting natives

Series Shot 1.2

Growth of saplings is improved without competition.

Results to date. As of March 2016, weeds have been significantly reduced across the 65 ha of assisted regeneration areas. Unfortunately a wildfire fire went through approx. a third of the project area after primary and follow up weed control works had been completed. Fortunately the event was prior to planting though the fire did reduce the number of trees regenerating in assisted regeneration patches as many were too young to withstand the fire. New germinations are however occurring and the level of native grasses, groundcovers and other native species have increased due to ongoing weed control efforts.

Despite heavy frosts in winter 2015, a flood event in May 2015 (150 mm of rain fell in 1.5 hours) and now an extended dry period, the planting is developing well with the average height of trees at over a metre tall and mortality under 5%. Weed control is continuing across the project site with efforts currently concentrating on the control of many annual weeds such as Cobbler’s Peg (Bidens pilosa), Balloon Cotton (Gomphocarpus physocarpus) and Stinking Roger (Tagetes minuta) and many exotic grasses such as Setaria (Setaria sphacelata) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) to reduce competition to planted stock. Assisted regeneration areas are being joined up to planting zones wherever possible to further assist the development of the site.

It should also be noted that Birds Australia have recorded 69 bird species on site.

Ongoing works: Regular maintenance continues on the site with the control of weeds particularly along rip lines where weed germination and growth is rapid. Slashing is also regularly done between the rip lines and along tracks and fence lines to assist access around the site and the management of fuel loads and therefore wildfire across the site. It is expected that the time it takes to complete each maintenance rotation will begin to reduce as plants become more established and start to develop a canopy.

Weed control will also continue in all assisted regeneration zones and is also expected to reduce with the development of native vegetation structure and diversity together with the reduction of the weed seed bank. Ongoing slashing, fence maintenance and monitoring will continue for another 3-5 years though the exact time period will be determined by the State government.

Monitoring including soil moisture readings, transects to assist determining survival rates across the site and photographic monitoring is regular and further supports 6 monthly reporting requirements.

Stakeholders and funding bodies: Department of Environment, Heritage and Protection, Queensland State Government; Sporting Shooters Association of Australia (SSAA). Photos: Ecosure.

Contact Information: Jen Ford (Principal Restoration Ecologist, Ecosure TEl: +61 (0)7  3606 1038.

 

Restoration at Numinbah Conservation Area, City of the Gold Coast, Queensland

Key Words: assisted regeneration, restoration planning, conservation

Introduction: Numinbah Conservation Area, located in the hinterland of the Gold Coast in south-east Queensland, is one of many natural areas managed by City of Gold Coast’s Natural Areas Management Unit (NAMU). The 598 ha property contains 12 Regional Ecosystems (REs) ranging from sub-tropical and dry rainforest to dry and wet sclerophyll types; and include riparian zones, steep areas, gullies and rocky outcrops. Its conservation value is heightened by the fact that it connects to other reserves including the World Heritage areas of Springbrook.

Condition ranges from large degraded areas (i.e. pasture) to native vegetation that contains both regrowth and remnant areas. All areas were impacted by weeds due to previous disturbance from logging and subsequent cattle grazing. More than 35 weed species impact the site at varying levels with the most notable species across the site being Lantana (Lantana camara). Edges are impacted by exotic vines such as Glycine (Neonotonia wightii), the understorey by many herbaceous weeds such as Mistflower (Ageratina riparia) and rainforest zones by persistent weeds such as Coral Berry (Rivina humilis) and Passion Vines (Passiflora spp.) to name a few. Approximately 60 hectares of open area are dominated by pasture grasses and other weeds.

The aim of the project is to restore, to the extent possible, the structure, function, dynamics and integrity of the pre-existing vegetation and the sustaining habitat that is provided. Our goals are to:

  • Improve the health of vegetation and habitat types across the site
  • Improve connectivity for flora and fauna
  • Reduce fuel levels in fire prone ecosystems and the risk of hot fires sweeping through the site and wider landscape
  • Increase the resilience of the site
  • Improve water quality
  • Increase the health, populations and distribution of threatened species – flora and fauna
  • Reduce the need for weed control maintenance over time i.e. to a level of minimal maintenance
  • Provide nature based recreational opportunities and environmental education along this section of the Gold Coast Hinterland Great Walk

Planning. An ecological restoration plan was developed after detailed site assessments and the site was divided into precincts, zones and sub-zones to assist directing works. Information in the plan included species lists, weed control information, maps and detail on how to restore each area and progressively link zones. A detailed fire management plan was also developed for the site that took into account wildfire mitigation, restoration zones, the location of threatened species, site objectives, REs including their recommended fire regimes, and the capacity of areas to regenerate.

Works to date. Works over the last 9 years have covered more than 190 ha. The main approach to restoration has been via assisted regeneration consisting mainly of large scale weed control and the fencing of areas to reduce the impact of cattle. Further works have involved planting a section of creek to assist stability and connectivity across a section of the site; and the propagation and translocation of four threatened flora species (details not disclosed for security reasons).

Where low intensity fuel reduction burns were conducted in dry sclerophyll vegetation, timely follow up weed control was applied to ensure re-shooting Lantana, Molasses Grass (Melinis minutiflora) and other weeds did not fill gaps and to support the colonisation and growth of native vegetation. In remnant and regrowth vegetation, systematic weed control using a range of techniques has been applied. E.g. large areas of Lantana were controlled using three techniques: cut, scrape and paint where it was in close proximity to native plants; over-spraying after isolating infestations; and, spot-spraying when it germinated or was re-shooting. Weed species were continually suppressed to ensure native species germinated and grew to a point where most gaps have been filled with native vegetation. As each area developed and maintenance reduced, efforts were put into continually expanding the work fronts.

A propagation and translocation project was also implemented in partnership with Seqwater. More than 1150 individuals (four species) have been propagated, planted into their particular niche and have been monitored and reported on annually. This will continue until all species are considered to be self-sustaining i.e. flowering, fruiting and reproducing.

(a)NCA8n_20080502

(b)NCA8n_20080827

(c) NCA8n_20090716

(d)NCA8n_20100625

(e)NCA8n_20110630

(f)NCA8n_20151130

Figure 1, (a-f) represents an annual sequence of recovery after control of Lantana and subsequent weed at one photopoint from 2008 to 2011, with the last photo taken in 2015. The results reflect accurate and timely weed control to support the recovery of native vegetation. (Photos: City of Gold Coast)

Results to date. As of July 2015, weeds have been significantly reduced across the 190 ha treated area to a point where maintenance is being applied, with some areas requiring little to no maintenance. In a number of areas this reduction of weed has also significantly reduced fuel levels.

Increased abundance and diversity of native vegetation has occurred across a range of ecosystem and habitat types within the reserve. Open areas once dominated by dense Lantana have taken approx. 3 years to naturally regenerate with a range of pioneer, early secondary and later stage rainforest species (Figs 1-3). Many of those areas now include continuing recovery of later stage species and contain a large diversity of seedlings, groundcovers and ferns. More diverse communities have recovered with a large range of species (depending on the ecosystem / ecotone) and support a diversity of fauna species. Works in four of the larger precincts have now joined up and weed control works are continuing to expand all regenerating areas.

More than 7000 plants installed along the open riparian stretch are establishing with native species regenerating amongst the planting. After approx. 7 years the average height of the planted canopy is approx. 5-7m tall.

Ongoing works: All current work zones are being continuously extended ensuring progress made is maintained. The open area (e.g. paddock) is being reduced over time as vegetation is encouraged to expand (i.e. by continuing to control weeds to past the drip lines of all native vegetation). Fences that currently contain cattle (i.e. to assist managing open areas for access, fire management and to ensure funds are spent in more resilient areas) are being moved to continue to reduce the size of highly degraded areas. Fire management, large scale weed control and the monitoring and evaluation of threatened species, together with fauna surveys, is continuing.

Stakeholders and funding bodies: Natural Areas Management Unit (NAMU), City of Gold Coast and Seqwater. Contact Information Paul Cockbain, Team Leader Restorations +61 7 5581 1510

 

Post-sand extraction restoration of Banksia woodlands, Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia.

Deanna Rokich

Key words: research-practice partnership, adaptive management, smoke technology, cryptic soil impedance, topsoil handling.

Figure 1. Examples of undisturbed Banksia woodland reference sites.

Introduction. Banksia woodlands were once a common and widespread feature of the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia (Fig. 1); today less than 35% of the original Banksia woodlands remain in metropolitan Perth. When sand extraction activities were permitted over 25 years ago, Hanson Construction Materials opted to go well beyond the statutory minimum requirement of re-instating local native species. Instead, Hanson committed to meet the challenge to return post-sand extracted sites (Fig. 2) to an ecosystem closely resembling the pre-disturbance Banksia woodland. To achieve this high resemblance to the reference ecosystem, Hanson operations sought the assistance of the Science Directorate team within the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority in 1995. BGPA developed and implemented a research and adaptive management program with Hanson, resulting in a collaboration involving graduate and post-graduate student research programs into key facets of Banksia woodland ecosystem restoration, application of outcomes into restoration operations, and finally, restoration sites that are beginning to mimic reference sites (Fig.3).

Prior to the partnership, species richness and plant abundance, and thus restoration success, was limited in the rehabilitation. Research and adaptive management subsequently focused on improvements in soil reconstruction; topsoil management; seed germination enhancement (including smoke technology); seed broadcasting technology and whole-of-site weed management.

Monitoring. BGPA scientists have been undertaking annual plant monitoring of Banksia woodland restoration activities within reference and restoration sites for ca 15 years. This has resulted in data-sets on seedling emergence and plant survival within a range of sites, culminating in the development of annual performance criteria and ultimately, the ability to measure restoration performance in the short (e.g. from seedling emergence) and long-term (e.g. from plant survival).

Fig2d

Figure 2. The greatly reduced Banksia woodland sand profile following sand extraction, with topsoil being spread onto the pit floor.

Results. Consolidation of ca 15 years of data from >50 sites (encompassing a range of topsoil quality and climatic conditions) has revealed that stem density and species richness fall into three levels of restoration:

  • good restoration quality (high topsoil quality and favourable climatic conditions).
  • medium restoration quality (poor topsoil quality or unfavourable climatic conditions).
  • poor restoration quality (poor topsoil quality and unfavourable climatic conditions).

The integration of key research areas has resulted in:

  • Identification of first year species re-instatement being the blueprint for long-term species re-instatement.
  • Observation of cryptic soil impedance and extremely high plant loss in the standard ‘topsoil over overburden’ profile during the 2nd summer following restoration, but higher plant re-instatement and better ecosystem dynamics in the long term.
  • Improvement in seedling re-instatement, illustrated by perennial species return increasing from less than 10% to more than 70% (i.e. >100 perennial species), and stem density return of >140 perennial plants per 5m2 in Year 1, primarily due to improved topsoil handling methods – i.e. good quality, fresh and dry topsoil.
  • A ten-fold increase in the stem density of seedlings derived from direct-seeding due to innovative seed coating technology, delivery to site technology and sowing time optimisation.
  • Trebling of seedling recruitment success due to application of smoke technology.
  • Minimised weed invasion through the use of good quality and fresh topsoil, burial of the weed seedbank and prompt active weed management.
FIg3a

Figure 3. Restoration sites after 8 years, illustrating the return of the Banksia trees.

Implications for other sites. The post-sand extraction sites have provided important lessons and information about the management and restoration needs of Banksia woodlands – e.g. a high level of intervention is necessary, whilst cross-application of general restoration principles are not always possible for Banksia woodlands – useful for all those involved with managing and restoring Banksia woodland fragments within the broader Perth region.

Current and future directions. Hanson is committed to ongoing improvement through research – continually testing and employing new research techniques, programs and equipment that are recommended from BGPA research programs.

Post-sand extraction restoration practices now involve:

  • re-instating the soil profile in its natural order of topsoil over overburden, in spite of the cryptic soil impedance witnessed in the overburden in the 2nd summer following restoration;
  • striving for highest seedling establishment in the first year of restoration, prior to onset of soil impedance;
  • stripping and spreading only good quality (free of weeds), fresh and dry topsoil;
  • conserving topsoil by a strip:spread ratio of 1:2 (i.e. stripping over 1ha and spreading over 2ha);
  • burying direct-sown seeds given that seed displacement from wind and invertebrate activity is prolific during the typical seed sowing season; and
  • ceasing the common practices of mulching sites and tree-guarding plants as they provide negative or no benefits.

The partners are considering re-doing sites rehabilitated during 1991-1994, prior to research, in order to improve species diversity.

Acknowlegments: Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority and Hanson Construction Materials are the key parties in this project; involving many individual managers, researchers and students.

Contact: Deanna Rokich – Deanna.Rokich@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Update on Regent Honeyeater Habitat Restoration Project (7 years on) – Lurg Hills, Victoria

Ray Thomas

Key words: Agricultural landscape, faunal recovery, community participation, seed production area

Twenty-one years of plantings in the Lurg Hills, Victoria, have seen a consolidation of the work described in the 2009 EMR feature Regent Honeyeater Habitat Restoration Project.  The priorities of the Project are to protect and restore remnants and enlarge them by add-on plantings. Together, this work has protected relatively healthy remnants by fencing; restored depleted remnants by planting or direct seeding; and revegetated open areas that had been cleared for agriculture. Other restoration activities include mistletoe removal, environmental weeding, environmental thinning; feral animal control, kangaroo reduction, nest box placement, and systematic monitoring of a range of threatened and declining woodland birds and hollow-dependent mammals.

Updated outputs since 2009. A further 540 ha of private land has now been planted (150 additional sites since 2009). This means the total area treated is now 1600ha on over 550 sites. The oldest plantings are now 19 years old and 10m high (compare to 12 years old and 6m high in 2009) (Fig 1).

The total number of seedlings planted is now approx. 620,000 seedlings compared with 385,000 in 2009. Some 280km fencing has been established compared with 190 km in 2009. Mistletoe now treated on scores of heavily infested sites

Foster's Dogleg Lane 19 yrs

Fig. 1. Ecosystem attributes developing in 19-year-old planting at Dogleg Lane (Foster’s). Note pasture grass weeds are gone, replaced by leaf litter, logs, understorey seedling recruitment, open soil areas.

Improvements in genetics and climate readiness. As reported in 2009, seed collection is carried out with regard for maximising the genetic spread of each species, to prevent inbreeding and more positively allow for evolution of the progeny as climate changes. This has meant collecting seed in neighbouring areas on similar geological terrain but deliberately widening the genetic base of our revegetation work. We are also attempting to create as broad bio-links as possible so that they are functional habitat in their own right (not just transit passages). This may allow wildlife to shift to moister areas as the country dries out. With a species richness of 35–40 plant species for each planting site, we also enable natural selection to shift the plant species dominance up or down slope as future soil moisture dictates.

2016 Update: In recent years we have engaged with geneticists from CSIRO Plant Division in Canberra, to improve the genetic health of our plantings. Many of our local plants that we assumed to be genetically healthy, have not recruited in our planting sites. For example, Common Everlasting (Chrysocephalum apiculatum) produces very little if any fertile seed each year because it is sterile to itself or its own progeny (Fig 2 video). In fragmented agricultural landscapes, it seems that many of our remnant plants have already become inbred, and it is seriously affecting fertility, form and vigor. The inbreeding level has affected fertility in this particular case, but we have several other cases where form and vigor are seriously affected as well.

Fig 2. Andie Guerin explaining the importance of collecting seed from larger populations. (Video)

Seed production area. We have now set up a seed production area (seed orchard) for about 30 local species that are ‘in trouble’, to ensure that the plants have sufficient genetic diversity to reproduce effectively and potentially adapt, should they need to as a result of a shifting climate. This will allow these populations to become self-sustaining. Each species is represented in the seed production area by propagules collected from typically10-15 different sites (up to 20kms and sometimes 50kms distant) and as many parents as we can find in each population.

We aim for at least 400 seedlings of each species, to ensure the genetic base is broad enough to have the potential for evolution in situ. The planting ratios are biased towards more from the bigger populations (that should have the best diversity), but deliberately include all the smaller populations to capture any unique genes they may have. We plant each population in separate parallel rows in the seed orchard to maximise the cross pollination and production of genetically diverse seed for future planting projects. We have noticed that the health of some of these varieties is greatly improving as a result of increasing the genetic diversity. On one site we direct-sowed Hoary Sunray, sourced from a large population, and it has since spread down the site very quickly (Fig 3).

Gary Bruce wildflower patch Orbweaver

Fig 3. Small sub-shrubs and herbaceous species are generally not planted in stage 1 of a project, as the weed levels are often too high for such small plants to succeed. These plants are only introduced in stage 2, when the weeds have diminished up to a decade later. This approach has been very successful with direct seeding and planting some of our rarer forbs.

Recruitment of Eucalypts now evident. Nearly 20 years on from the first plantings, we can report that quite a number of sites have eucalypts old enough to be flowering and seeding, and some of them are now recruiting. We are delighted that our early efforts to broaden the planting genetics are demonstrating success with such natural processes (Figs 1 and 3). Ironbark recruitment from our plantings commenced in 2014 and Red Box commenced in 2015.

Recruitment can also be seriously affected by herbivore problems, particularly rabbits. In recent years we have been undertaking careful assessments of rabbit load on a potential planting site and have gained some advantage by deploying an excavator with a ripper attached to the excavator arm. The excavator allows us to rip a warren right next to a tree trunk (in a radial direction), or work close to fence without damaging either. We’re finding this is providing a very good result. On one site we suspected there were a few warrens but it turned out to be just short of 30 warrens within 100 m of the site – each with 30-40 rabbit holes. After ripping all of those, we ended up with activity in only 2 of the warrens, which were then easily retreated.

We have had such good results with the rabbits on some sites that we are trialing planting without tree guards – it’s much more efficient on time, labour, and costs. And adjacent to bush areas, where kangaroos and wallabies are a significant threat to plantings, this process has an extra advantage. It seems that macropods learn that there is something tasty in the guards, so a guard actually attracts their attention. Our initial trials are producing some good results and given us confidence to expand our efforts with thorough rabbit control.

Faunal updates. An important objective of the project is to reinstate habitat on the more fertile soils favoured for agriculture, to create richer food resources for nectarivorous and hollow-dependent fauna including the Regent Honeyeater (Anthochaera phrygia). In 2009 the Regent Honeyeater was nationally Endangered and was thought to be reduced to around 1500 individuals. By 2015, it was thought to be reduced to 500 individuals, and so has been reclassified as Critically Endangered.

Regent Honeyeaters have turned up in recent years in gully areas where the soils are deeper, the moisture and nectar production is better, and there is a bit more density to provide cover against the effects of aggressive honeyeaters like the Noisy Miner (Manorina melanocephala). The Regent Honeyeaters have been able to remain on such sites for around for a week or more, but have not bred on the sites to date. But breeding has occurred about 15kms away on the eastern edge of our project area. Radio-tracking showed that these breeding birds were some of the captive-bred birds released at Chiltern 100km further NE, and that the birds came towards Lurg after the Chiltern Ironbarks had finished flowering. We consider it to be just a matter of time before the Regent Honeyeaters will find the many habitat sites we’ve planted on higher productivity soils in the Lurg area.

Formal monitoring of Grey-crowned Babbler (Pomatostomus temporalis temporalis) for the past last 13 years has documented a rapid rise (due to some wetter years) from 60 birds in 19 family groups to approx. 220 birds in 21 family groups. There is also exciting evidence that the endangered Brush-tailed Phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa) is returning to the Lurg district. The distinctive shredded Stringybark nests are now found in scores of our next boxes (up to 10km from the site of our first records of 2 dead specimens in the south of our project area in the mid 1990s). This dramatic population spread is presumably a direct result of our carefully located corridor plantings that have bridged the habitat gaps all across the district.

Increased social engagement. In the last 6 years we have increased the number of visits to planting days by 50 per cent. There has been a steady growth in the number of new local landholders involved and the total number is now 160 landholders engaged, compared with 115 in 2009. Everyone we come across knows of the project and anyone new to the area hears about it from one of their neighbours. Very few people (you could count them on one hand), say they would rather not be involved. In fact we increasingly get cold calls from new people who have observed what has happened on their neighbour’s place and then phone us to say they want to be involved. It’s a positive indication that the project is part of the spirit of the area. This was further confirmed by the inclusion, of a very detailed Squirrel Glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) mural in a recent street art painting exhibition. The permanent artwork is the size of a house wall, and situated prominently in the heart of the parklands of Benalla.

Much of our work has relied heavily on volunteers, with a total of 10,344 students and 24,121 community volunteers involved over the past 21 years. City folk have fewer opportunities to be in nature, with the bushwalking clubs, university students and scouts in particular, really keen to come and roll up their sleeves.

Typically about 17 to 20 of the local schools, primary and secondary, help us with propagating the seedlings at the start of each year and then planting their own seedlings back out into the field in the winter and spring. And we are increasingly getting interest from metropolitan schools that come to the country for a week-long camp. Some of the schools even have their own permanent camps up here and they want to be involved with our hands on work too. “It’s simply part of our environmental responsibility”, is the way they express it.

Contact: Ray Thomas, Coordinator of the Regent Honeyeater Project Inc (PO Box 124, Benalla, Vic. 3672, Australia; Tel: +61 3 5761 1515. Email: ray@regenthoneater.org.au

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Seed production and direct seeding to restore grassy understorey diversity at Mount Annan, NSW.

Peter Cuneo, Jordan Scott and Katharine Catelotti

Key words: direct seeding, grassy woodland restoration, seed production areas, Cumberland Plain woodland

Need for restoring grassy diversity. The rapid spread of African Olive (Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata) in the Cumberland Plain region of western Sydney in recent decades is now a significant conservation concern (Figs 1 and 2). Cumberland Plain Woodland (CPW) is now listed at the state and federal level as a critically endangered ecological community, and African olive invasion is recognised as the greatest invasive threat to CPW, and listed under the NSW TSC Act as a Key Threatening Process.

Dense monocultures of African olive are now established at a landscape scale in western Sydney, and there has been considerable use of mechanical mulching (‘forest mowing’) to control these highly degraded CPW remnants/monocultures (Fig 3). Often only remnant trees remain, and once these dense olive infestations are controlled, land managers are faced with several years of follow up olive control, degraded native soil seedbank and a profusion of annual weeds.

The Australian Botanic Garden, Mount Annan (ABGMA) has completed over 40 hectares of mechanical control of African Olive since 2009. Recent research (Cuneo & Leishman 2015) has indicated that a ‘bottom up’ approach restoration using native grasses as an early successional stage has potential to restore these transitional landscapes and achieve a trajectory towards CPW.

Hillside African olive invasion

Fig 1. Hillside African Olive invasion

Beneath dense olive canopy

Fig 2. Nil biodiversity beneath dense African Olive canopy

Olive mulching machine

Fig 3.  Olive mulching machine

Like many landscape scale ecological restoration projects ABGMA faces a shortage of native grass seed, however a successful NSW Environmental Trust application provided the funding support to develop a 1500 sq metre native grass seed production area as part of the Australian PlantBank landscape. The key objective was to grow high quality weed free native grass seed (of known germinability) to direct sow on degraded African olive sites where the native grassy understory had been lost.

Seed production area. The seed production area was established by tubestock planting of four key local grasses, Dichelachne micrantha (Plume grass), Microlaena stipoides (Weeping meadow grass), Chloris truncata (Windmill grass) and Poa labillardieri (Tussock grass) (Figs 4 and 5). Seed was wild source collected from CPW and grasslands within ABGMA, which provides a reference vegetation type and condition to guide restoration. The seed production area which was irrigated and fenced to exclude rabbits was highly productive, even during the first summer season. Both hand and mechanical harvesting were used, and the total output over the 2014/15 summer was impressive 118 kg of seed material harvested. All seed batches were germination tested at PlantBank which indicated a total output of over 13 million viable seeds from the first harvest season.

Planting Seed prod area

Fig 4. Planting out seed production area

 

Plumegrass

Fig. 5.  Plumegrass in seed production area, almost ready for harvest

Direct seeding of grasses. Restoration challenges included large areas, profuse annual weeds and competitive olive seedlings on the transitional post-olive sites. A decision was made to focus the direct seeding across one fifth of the treatment area in a series of cultivated 2m wide strips at 8m spacing. The strips were created along contours to limit the erosive potential of the prepared areas. These seeded strips could then be managed in a similar way to surrounding cleared areas with broadleaf selective herbicide and slashing.

Seeded grass strips were prepared using a small track machine with surface tilling attachment to provide good soil/seed contact (Fig 6). Seed material (seed/stalks) were combined with compost (Fig 7) and sand and hand broadcasted. In an effort to create an ‘in situ’ seed production area and robust native grass populations, harvested grass seed was then used to high density (up to 3300 seeds/m²) direct sow a total of 5km x 2m wide strips throughout 5 hectares of cleared African olive sites at ABGMA in March 2015.

Favourable conditions during autumn 2015 resulted in excellent field germination, with established seedling densities of up to 608 seedlings/m² observed after 10 months (Fig 8). The combination of surface tilling and dense sowing rates has resulted in a dense and competitive grass layer, however some further broadleaf weed control along the strips will improve long term grass density and establishment.

These native grass strips will provide a ‘nucleus’ grass seed source for these degraded areas, maintaining soil stability, improving ecological resilience and accelerate the regeneration of these degraded areas.

Direct seeding strips

Fig 6. Direct seeding strips prepared

Mixing bulk native grass seed

Fig 7. Mixing bulk native grass seed

Seed strip established2comp

Fig 8. Seed strip established after one year

Lessons learned. Using known quality seed and achieving seed/soil contact through surface tilling was important to success, as cleared olive areas have a heavy mulch layer which limits seed contact. The use of both C3 and C4 grasses in the direct seeding mix worked well and is recommended, particularly for autumn sowing where cool season C3 can establish a quick cover followed by C4 grass establishment in summer. Some mechanical wild grass seed harvesting is also done at ABGMA, however practitioners should be aware of the risk of grassy weed contamination. Overall the project was relatively labour intensive, but some mechanisation of seed spreading could be achieved with a compost spreader. Steep terrain at ABGMA is a limiting factor for some machinery, and hand broadcasting can be a practical option.

Future directions would include scaling up the size of seed production areas, and refining mechanical harvesting techniques. Grass seed strips will be progressively managed, and seed either mechanically harvested or slashed to spread seed across the site. Once grasses are well established, the next phase will include direct seeding of CPW shrubs and trees. The well prepared and presented seed production area with mass plantings of native grasses, attracted considerable visitor interest at ABGMA and became a focus for several practitioner field days on olive control and ecological restoration.

Acknowledgements: Implementation of this NSW Environmental Trust project has relied significantly on working with industry partners, Greening Australia (Paul Gibson-Roy, Samantha Craigie, Chris Macris), Cumberland Plain Seeds (Tim Berryman) and Australian Land & Fire Management (Tom McElroy) who have bought additional technical expertise as well as on-ground implementation.

Contact person: Dr Peter Cuneo, Manager Seedbank & Restoration Research, Australian Botanic Garden, Mount Annan, NSW Australia. Locked Bag 6002, Mount Annan NSW, 2567. Email: peter.cuneo@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au   Phone: +61 (2)46347915

Watch RegenTV Video : Seed production area

Read full EMR feature: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/doi/10.1111/emr.12139

BG & CP website: https://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/Science-Conservation/Our-Work-Discoveries/Natural-Areas-Management/Restoring-test

 

 

Managing fire for nature conservation in subtropical woodlands

Emma Burgess, Murray Haseler and Martine Maron

Introduction. A study investigating the response of bird assemblages to mosaic burning is being conducted on 60,000 hectares private nature reserve in the Brigalow Belt bioregion of Queensland (Fig 1). The Brigalow Belt has recently experienced high rates of native vegetation clearing, motivating Bush Heritage Australia (BHA) to purchase and protect the property in 2001. The subsequent removal of cattle and horses from Carnarvon Station Reserve has increased grass and herb biomass. The seasonal surge in productivity the property now experiences however, increases the potential for more intense, frequent and extensive fires in hot, dry conditions. The risk of such wildfires needs to be managed, and a common approach to such management is prescribed burning. But how to ensure nature conservation objectives are still met?

Fig 1. Locality map of Carnarvon Station Reserve

Fig 1. Locality map of Carnarvon Station Reserve

In fire ecology, there is a common assumption that if we introduce a range of burn conditions to produce a mosaic of patches with different fire histories (pyrodiversity) – then the resulting diversity in fire histories and the greater representation of successional stages of vegetation is expected to accommodate more species in a given area (Fig. 2). Reducing the spatial scale at which fire history turns over- the “breaking up” of country- is also known as the patch mosaic burning approach.

Fig 2. Diagram of mosaic burning approach

Fig 2. Diagram of mosaic burning approach

Whilst we assume that pyrodiversity will give us increased habitat diversity, and therefore greater animal diversity, there is uncertainty as to the scale (alpha, beta or gamma diversity) at which pyrodiversity might influence biodiversity (Fig. 3). Alpha diversity is the total number of different species within a site or habitat; beta diversity is the difference in species composition between sites or habitats; and gamma diversity is the number of different species across all sites or habitats in the area of interest. At what spatial scale do we see the benefit for birds of mosaic burning (Fig. 3)?

Fig 4. Fire-sensitive semi-evergreen vine-thicket extending into Mountain Coolibah (Eucalyptus orgadophila) woodland, Carnarvon Station Reserve

Fig 4. Fire-sensitive semi-evergreen vine-thicket extending into Mountain Coolibah (Eucalyptus orgadophila) woodland, Carnarvon Station Reserve

Methods: We examine the relative influence of the diversity of fire histories, spatial configuration of these fire histories, spatial extent of particular fire histories and other measures of environmental heterogeneity on:

  1. Aggregated measures of bird species richness at both the landscape- (100 ha) and local-scale (1 ha); and
  2. Response of different bird foraging guilds to mosaic burning, at both the landscape- and local-scale.

 So what did we find? The diversity of fire regimes in the 100-ha landscape did not correlate with average site (alpha) or landscape- (gamma) diversity of birds. Rather, the total area of longer-unburnt vegetation was important for increasing bird richness at the landscape-scale, and sites in longer-unburnt vegetation had more species.

Although areas burnt in prescribed burns supported lower bird diversity compared to long-unburnt areas, prescribed burns are still necessary to reduce the risk of extensive wildfire. Such burns should focus on breaking up areas of high fuel at the beginning of the dry season (Fig. 4). The extent of long-unburnt vegetation that can be maintained with careful fire management is yet to be determined, but its importance as bird habitat is clear.

Acknowledgements: This work could not have been completed without funding and logistical support provided by AndyInc Foundation, Bush Heritage Australia and UQRS. Thanks to Peta Mather and Donna Oliver who assisted with field work. This study was carried out with approval from the Animal Ethics Committee at the University of Queensland (approval no. SGPEM/325/11/UQ).

Fig 4. Fire-sensitive semi-evergreen vine-thicket extending into Mountain Coolibah (Eucalyptus orgadophila) woodland, Carnarvon Station Reserve

Fig 4. Fire-sensitive semi-evergreen vine-thicket extending into Mountain Coolibah (Eucalyptus orgadophila) woodland, Carnarvon Station Reserve

Contact: Dr Emma Burgess University of Queensland, Email: e.burgess4@uq.edu.au

[This project summary is a precis of a talk presented to the Nature Conservation Council of NSW’s 10th Biennial Bushfire Conference, ‘Fire and Restoration: Working with Fire for Healthy Lands’ 26-27 May 2015. For full paper see: http://www.nature.org.au/healthy-ecosystems/bushfire-program/conferences/%5D

Prescribed burning provides opportunities for site restoration via weed management in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia

Andrew Sheath

Introduction. The purpose of much of the prescribed burning work we do in the Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia fuel reduction to mitigate the risk of bushfire. But we also do a lot of work, including burning, purely for the purpose of biodiversity conservation. Being so close to Adelaide all of our Parks are highly fragmented and have a strong history of disturbance such as mining and grazing.

Within our team we have a very strong focus on weed control and we do this routinely for all of our burns. There are two reasons we have such a focus on weed management and no longer just go in and burn and walk away. The first is to ensure that the vegetation condition does not deteriorate and the second is to ensure that fuels don’t increase due to woody weeds. In many cases this is leading to improvements in quality of the sites.

Methods. Our burns are done under a prescription which specifies certain weather parameters for which the burn can be carried out safely. Our sites are typically between 5 and 200 hectares, often adjacent to built assets (Fig 1). Mapping both before a burn and 4 years after a burn allows us to monitor progress. We map most of our burns on foot, assessing native vegetation condition, weeds present, their distribution and their cover throughout the proposed burn site. We undertake this with a view to gaining a clear picture of what we’ve got to deal with during the burn and post-burn. Our planning begins 6-18 months prior to a burn to give us plenty of time to carry out works that are often seasonally dependent.

Fig 1: Example of a typical Adelaide Hills conservation area on the urban fringe. Red areas show prescribed burns either completed or in the planning phase.

Fig 1.  Example of a typical Adelaide Hills conservation area on the urban fringe. Red areas show prescribed burns either completed or in the planning phase.

Examples and results to date. In most of our situations pre-burn control greatly increases the efficiency of any post-burn work and overall makes our work easier.

Example 1: Figures 2 and 3, shows a significant reduction in the distribution of Gorse (Ulex europaeus) at an otherwise relatively intact site after the burn, improving the condition of the bush in this area.

Fig 2. Gorse distribution and density pre-burn

Fig 2. Gorse distribution and density pre-burn

Fig 3: Gorse distribution and density 3 years post burn after control work

Fig 3. Gorse distribution and density 3 years post burn after control work

Example 2: Figure 4 shows successful tree heath (Erica arborea) control in an otherwise intact woodland in the Adelaide hills. Six months prior to burning we cut and disturbed the stand of Tree Heath on this site to ensure all the biomass would burn; that we wouldn’t have the adults sitting up high above the flame dropping seed onto burnt ground (which often happens when burning under mild conditions); and, to promote juveniles which would then be burnt and killed during burn. The other benefits of this approach are that it also promotes native germination and makes follow up, post-burn easier.

Fig 4: Erica control site showing before being burnt or cut, after being cut and post burn.

Fig 4: Erica control site showing before being burnt or cut, after being cut and post burn.

Fig 5. Erica post control and pre-burn

Fig 5. Erica post control and pre-burn

Fig 6. Erica post-control and post-burn

Fig 6. Erica post-control and post-burn

Example 3: Figure 5 shows a perched swamp in the Adelaide Hills being thickly invaded by Wonnich (Callystachys lanceolata) from Western Australia. Because of location of the site we were unable to burn the swamp at sufficient intensity to consume the Wonnich. So in this situation we burnt the surrounding area in spring in mild conditions within prescription. We later went back in autumn after we had dropped all of the Wonnich on the ground and we burnt that swamp at a very high intensity and consumed all of the biomass. That promoted mass-germination of the weed. We’re then dealing with one age-class and we can go through and hand weed, spot spray, and re-burn areas to control the germination. Joe Quarmby, Threatened Flora Ecologist, was the mastermind behind this burn and continues to drive follow up control work at the site.

Fig 7. Swamp burnt in drier conditions during autumn.

Fig 7. Swamp burnt in drier conditions during autumn (after surrounding area burnt in more mild conditions in an earlier season).

Follow up control work in swamp.

Fig. 8. Follow up control work in swamp.

Lessons learned. Burning can be a very useful tool for weed management and although no site is ever the same we have been able to use a variety of techniques for certain weeds which greatly increase our efficiency. The key point however is that weed control should be and is routine and needs to be thought about pre-burn.

Acknowledgements. Thanks is extended to Joe Quarmby, Threatened Flora Ecologist.

Contact: Andrew Sheath, Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources – South Australia. Tel: +61 0457 512 032, Email: Andrew.Sheath@sa.gov.au

[This project summary is a precis of a talk presented to the Nature Conservation Council of NSW’s 10th Biennial Bushfire Conference, ‘Fire and Restoration: Working with Fire for Healthy Lands’ 26-27 May 2015. For full paper see: http://www.nature.org.au/healthy-ecosystems/bushfire-program/conferences/%5D