Twelve years of healing: Rehabilitating a willow-infested silt flat – Revegetation

Alan Lane

Key words: weed management, National Park, headwall, instability, Salix

The site: Popes Glen Creek is a small permanent stream rising in Memorial Park, Blackheath New South Wales, Australia. It flows through Popes Glen Bushland Reserve and the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), joining the Grose and Hawkesbury/Nepean River systems. The upper catchment drains a significant sector of the urban township of Blackheath.

The problem: Decades of erosion from surrounding unsealed roads resulted in a 1ha silt flat forming at the headwaters of the creek and terminating in a highly incised headwall 3m high and 20m wide. Upstream, the silt flat and severely braided creek were populated by a dense forest of mature, multi-trunked specimens of Crack Willow (Salix fragilis), as well as thickets of Purple Ossier (S. purpurea), Small-leaf Privet (Ligustrum spp.), Holly (Ilex aquifolium), Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster spp.) and immature S. fragilis. There was also a ground layer of Montbretia (Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora), Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg), English Ivy (Hedera helix), Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens) and Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica).

This dense and complex infestation of weeds threatened to spread downstream into susceptible remote areas of the GBMWHA, where it would rapidly become extremely difficult to remove and would ultimately threaten the Grose and Hawkesbury-Nepean River systems.

Fig 1. Feb 2005 - the creek bank, dominated by weeds prior to work.

Fig 1. Feb 2005 – the creek bank, dominated by weeds prior to work.

Fig 2. Sept 2014 - same site nearly 10 years later, showing established plantings and some natural regeneration.

Fig 2. Sept 2014 – same site nearly 10 years later, showing established plantings and some natural regeneration.

Works carried out: Phase 1: 2002 – 2008  In 2002, the Pope’s Glen volunteer bushcare group, supported by Blue Mountains City Council and funding from the Urban Run-off Control Program, established trial plantings on four sites (100m2 each) to identify a limited range of local riparian and wetland species and the planting techniques best suited to revegetating and stabilising the silt flat. The species included Red-fruit Saw-sedge (Gahnia sieberiana), three teatree species (Leptospermum lanigerum, L. polygalifolium, and L. juniperinum), Broad-leaved Hakea (Hakea dactyloides), and three ferns (Blechnum nudum, B. watsii and Cyathea australis).

A 3-year grant from the Environmental Trust (2005-2008) then enabled a program of weed removal and replanting, encompassing the upstream half of the silt flat and expanding the list of plant species to about 30.

The weeds were removed progressively in a patchwork to preserve the stability of the silt. The willows were killed by stem injection and felled when dead. Over these 3 years, the volunteer group planted approximately 7000 plants and carried out approximately 1200 hours of site maintenance. This has resulted in a diverse and resilient wetland community, with high levels of plant establishment from both planting and from natural recruitment (Figs 1 and 2).

Phase 2: 2012 – 2018 At the commencement of this phase, stability of the downstream portion of the silt flat and headwall was dependent upon the integrity of the roots of the remaining dense stands of weeds. These could be removed only as part of an integrated program of works to stabilise the silt and the headwall. A second grant from the Environmental Trust (2012-2018) is enabling an integrated, 6-year program of stabilisation, restoration and revegetation to be carried out by a team of experienced contractors, using both “soft” and “hard” engineering strategies.

The volunteer group is responsible for on-going site maintenance, photography, monitoring surface water quality and water table depth and quality, and for surveying vegetation, macro-invertebrates, frogs, birds and stygofauna.

Overall results. The formerly highly degraded silted flat is now a thriving community of wetland and riparian vegetation, home to a rich diversity of small birds, dragonflies and mayflies. Frogs are beginning to populate the site. Water quality has been significantly improved, with up to 85% of faecal coliforms and 75% of nitrate-N removed in the wetland. This improves the water quality in Popes Glen Creek and reduces the pollutant load into the GBMWHA.

Fig 3. Feb 2013 - a portion of the headwall viewed from downstream. (Plunge pool approx.3m below. (Image Damon Baker www.nomadgraphics.com.au).

Fig 3. Feb 2013 – a portion of the headwall viewed from downstream. (Plunge pool approx.3m below. (Image Damon Baker http://www.nomadgraphics.com.au).

Fig 4. Nov 2014 - same site showing heavy retaining wall and spillway now constructed. (Plunge pool has been stabilised with rock armouring.)

Fig 4. Nov 2014 – same site showing heavy retaining wall and spillway now constructed. (Plunge pool has been stabilised with rock armouring.)

Lessons learned and future directions: This is an example of how an apparently overwhelming challenge can be tackled by a dedicated group of volunteers with critical mass, commitment and longevity, provided that the group has support from a body such as a local Council and that it can raise funds to employ skilled assistance as needed. It is anticipated that the ambitious program of rehabilitating the extensive and highly degraded silt flat will be completed within the life of the present grant.

Stakeholders and funding bodies: This work is supported by a grant from the Government of New South Wales through its Environmental Trust and by the Blue Mountains City Council. Unless otherwise stated, photographs have been provided by Alan Lane and Paul Vale.

Contacts: Dr Alan Lane, Coordinator Popes Glen Bushcare Group, PO Box 388, Blackheath NSW 2785, Australia. Ph +61 2 4787 7097; Paul Vale, Deputy Coordinator Popes Glen Bushcare Group, 81 Prince Edward St, Blackheath NSW 2785, Australia. Ph +61 2 4787 8080; and Ray Richardson, Chairman of Steering Committee, Environmental Trust Grant 2011/CBR/0098. Ph +61 2 4759 2534.

Cooks River Naturalisation, Sydney, NSW Australia

By Dan Cunningham

Key words: riparian rehabilitation, revegetation, reconstruction

document

A reach of the Cooks River prior to and after naturalisation

A reach of the Cooks River prior to and after naturalisation

Sydney Water have undertaken a project to convert 1.1km of concreted sections of the Cooks River, Sydney Australia, to a more natural state, substantially improving their potential for aquatic function and the provision of services to surrounding residential areas.

The problem and its causes. Seven kms of the highly urbanised Cooks River were concrete lined in the 1940s in an effort to alleviate flooding and reduce water pollution. Since that time the natural values of the river have declined due to pollution and lack of riparian remnant vegetation.

Community interest in the quality of the environment had increased since the 1940s and, the structure of the concrete began to significantly deteriorate, in 2014 Sydney Water removed sections of deteriorated concrete and undertook environmental rehabilitation of parts of the riparian zone.

Fig 2. Cooks River Naturalisation sites

Fig 2. Cooks River Naturalisation sites

What we did. Between 2007 and 2013 Sydney Water carried out a masterplanning exercise that included asset inspections, hydraulic analysis, stakeholder consultation and concept design development; in order to identify sites along the river that were suited to renewal and naturalisation (Fig 2).

There was little adjacent native vegetation on which to base the design of the revegetation work, but local botanical surveys had resulted in a conceptual map of the catchment’s pre-existing ecological communities, which allowed the project to select species suited to four different habitat types:

  • Freshwater and Brackish Swamp – Lower to mid bank (non- tidal reach) and constructed wetland
  • Clay Plain Scrub Forest – mid bank to upper bank and over bank areas (reference – Third Avenue remnant)
  • Turpentine Ironbark Forest – Selected larger trees
  • Coastal Saltmarsh – Lower to mid bank (tidal reaches) and saltmarsh benches (reference Gough Whitlam Park and Wolli Ck)
Fig 3. Presumed ecological communities prior to clearing

Fig 3. Presumed ecological communities prior to clearing (Source: The Bushplants of the Cook River Valley: D. Benson, D. Ondinea and V.Bear ,1999).

Fig. 4. Profile of bank treatment

Fig. 4. Profile of bank treatment

Fig 5. Concrete lining of

Fig 5. Reasons for works included environmental benefits and deterioration of the concrete.

 Results. The project resulted in the reconstruction of a diversity of native riparian habitat types and improved connectivity for biota between reaches of the river that were previously disconnected. This resulted in massive aesthetic improvement, with local residents conveying much improved local area pride and positivity. The project provides a social amenity, with the provision of pathways, seating, interpretive signage and provides an opportunity for local communities to reinstate a sense of place and reconnect with each other in the context of a natural river. In addition it represents value for money considering that longer asset life produced by the natural system.

Fig 6. Works inlcuded floodways devoid of trees.

Fig 6. Works inlcuded floodways devoid of trees.

Fig 7. Native vegetation now stabilising the  banks.

Fig 7. Planted native vegetation now stabilising the
banks.

Acknowledgement: This summary was first presented to the Symposium ‘Reubilding Ecosystems’ held at the Teachers’ Federation Conference Centre, Sydney by the Australian Association of Bush Regenerators (AABR)

Contact: Dan Cunningham – Program Lead, Waterways Sydney Water, Email: <daniel.cunningham@sydneywater.com.au>

Websites:

http://www.sydneywater.com.au/SW/water-the-environment/what-we-re-doing/current-projects/stormwater-management/stormwater-naturalisation/index.htm

http://www.sydneywatertalk.com.au/crbnp/

Constructed Saltmarshes in two urban sites, Kooroowall Reserve and Gough Whitlam Park, Sydney, Australia

By Mia Dalby-Ball

Key words: Wetland, Saltmarsh, Intertidal, Urban Ecology, Construction

Introduction: Coastal Saltmarsh is an intertidal ecosystem under threat and currently listed on both the state (New South Wales (NSW)) and Australia’s national list as an Endangered Ecological Community. Saltmarsh provides a variety of ecosystem services, including providing habitat for crabs which then release larvae during some high-tides. Crab larvae from saltmarshes have been found to be key food for small fish.

Over 80% of urban saltmarshes in NSW have been filled for a range of uses including playing fields, often after their use as rubbish dumps. With an increase in awareness of the value of these ecosystems, the restoration of saltmarsh in urban areas is occurring globally and locally. Here we describe two saltmarsh reconstruction projects at Kooroowall Reserve and Gough Whitlam Park, Sydney.

Aim of the works. In each example the aim was to create a functioning saltmarsh – that is a saltmarsh with appropriate tidal inundation, appropriate plant species and cover and invertebrate species (e.g. crabs, molluscs).

Works undertaken. In both cases works commenced with soil testing (soil type, pollutants, acid sulfate soils and depth to ground water) followed by the development of a detailed design.   Hydrology was observed from surrounding areas to identify location-specific elevations connected to nearby existing intertidal areas. Substrate was then excavated to the desired level, top-soil was put in place to provide appropriate nutrients, then planting carried out and/or natural regeneration encouraged.

Figure 1. Reconstructed saltmarsh at Kooroowall Reserve, 2015

Figure 1. Reconstructed saltmarsh at Kooroowall Reserve, 2015

vii)Gough Whitlam Park January 2015 in 2m tide. (Photo M. Dalby-Ball)

Figure 2.  Gough Whitlam Park January 2015 in 2m tide. (Photo M. Dalby-Ball)

Results to date. Around 80% cover of saltmarsh plant species has established and persists at both sites to date. (Figs 1 and 2.) Non-saltmarsh plants dominate the upper 5m of the Gough Whitlam Park as this was not excavated low enough, with a similar area occurring at the Kooroowall Reserve saltmarsh (Fig 3). Saltmarsh crabs and gastropods are present at both sites. Density of saltmarsh plants at both sites is greatest where the tidal inundation is most frequent. The before and after images show the dramatic change from a weed dominated, neglected area of fill (Kooroowall reserve) to Saltmarsh and from Turf (GWP) to Saltmarsh.

Natural regeneration and establishment of saltmarsh plants was highest where there was “wrack” covering the exposed sandy substrate. (Wrack is organic material such as washed up sea-grass or a mix of leaves fine twigs.) That is, saltmarsh seedlings that germinated in areas without wrack were found to die during consecutive hot dry days while those in wrack generally survived.

iii)Kooroowall Saltmarsh January 2015. (Photo: M. Dalby-Ball)

Figure 3. Kooroowall Saltmarsh January 2015. (Photo: M. Dalby-Ball)

Lessons learned. Lessons include the importance of achieving the required tidal inundation. In both examples the level of some sections of the sites could have been lowered at the time of construction. In the case of Kooroowall an area of heavy clay was encountered and additional resources would have been required to implement the planned works. As the resources were not available, this was not done. The higher area now has Coastal Wattle growing on it, shading out the saltmarsh. There is now either a reoccurring cost to remove this plant, or if nothing is done, that area becomes terrestrial vegetation.

Fencing was found to be essential at the Kooroowall Saltmarsh as its proximity to a children’s play area resulted in it becoming a de facto bike jump area. No fencing was required at Gough Whitlam Park; however there is a high level of community engagement and interpretive signage.

It is likely that the wrack was beneficial in retaining moisture to assist survival of species.

Acknowledgements: Both Saltmarsh creation projects were facilitated and managed through local government. Kooroowall by Pittwater Council and Gough Whitlam Park by Canterbury Council. Both projects had grant funding (over 50%) from federal government sources distributed through the then Catchment Management Authorities. These agencies have now changed name to Local Land Services. Dragonfly Environmental designed the Saltmarsh re-creation and Gough Whitlam Park.

Contact: Mia Dalby-Ball, Director, Ecological Consultants Australia, 30 Palmgrove Road Avalon Beach Sydney NSW, 2107, Tel: +61 488 481 929, Email: ecologicalca@outlook.com

Directly transplanting of native monocots from donor areas to suitable reconstruction sites

By Edgar Freimanis

Key words: urban bushland restoration, site remediation, direct return topsoil, plant salvage, transplanting.

Introduction: As a bush regeneration contractor often working adjacent to development sites in the Sydney Region it occurred to me that plants and topsoil earmarked for destruction at a development site could be salvaged and translocated to improve results in nearby or similar restoration areas. Monocots lend themselves to this process due to their comparatively shallow, fibrous and stoloniferous root systems that have adapted to regrowing after disturbance.

Works undertaken and results. Over the years our bush regeneration contract team has translocated monocots at a range of project sites where natural regeneration potential is very low. Typically this technique accompanies our more conventional planting of nursery grown tree and shrub tubestock in these areas. The soils in these recipient areas are usually similar to those of the donor sites from where they were sourced. If weed management is needed, the recipient sites are typically weeded before transplanting takes place. We use hand tools such as shovels to dig-up variable sized sections of mostly native grasses and some other native monocotyledonous plant sods from areas that have been designated for development and other similar authorised clearing.

The sods are placed into plastic trays, moved and directly transplanted into parts of adjoining bushland conservation areas that have been designated for reconstruction planting. The transplants can be placed within recipient sites at similar densities to grassy ground layer tubestock plantings, (e.g. at densities of between 1-4-plants per m2, or more) or laid out like turf in continuous sections,

Plant establishment aids such as water retention crystals and fertilisers are also applied to each transplant at planting to assist with plant survival and establishment. The transplants are watered-in initially and on subsequent occasions, depending on prevailing soil moisture conditions, project resources and project timing.

Ongoing follow-up bush regeneration weeding is typically undertaken in the recipient sites, as required. (Fig 1). Monitoring has been confined to ‘before and after’ photo documentation, as shown in the following examples.

Figure 1. A sod of the native grass Entolasia stricta being transplanted at 4 plants/m2 into the old driveway at the Tuckwell Road. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 1. A sod of the native grass Entolasia stricta being transplanted at 4 plants/m2 into the old driveway at the Tuckwell Road. (Photo: Ecohort)

1. Tuckwell Road, Castle Hill Shale Sandstone Transition Forest and Sydney Turpentine Ironbark Forest Regeneration and Reconstruction of low residence sections. The recipient site was a rehabilitated old bitumen driveway within an estimated 0.40-hecatre bushland conservation and restoration area Native grasses and other monocots were transplanted from a bushland area that was being cleared for associated road widening works at a density of four plants/m2. (Figs 2 and 3).

Figure 2. Tuckwell Road ‘before’ (note: exotic plants already removed). (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 2. Tuckwell Road ‘before’ (note: exotic plants already removed). (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 3. Tuckwell road about 2-years later showing transplanted native monocots and planted native shrubs. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 3. Tuckwell road about 2-years later showing transplanted native monocots and planted native shrubs. (Photo: Ecohort)

2. Kellyville (Cumberland Plain Woodland site). The recipient site consisted of an edge of a bushland conservation area, that was subject to earthworks associated with a retirement village development. The recipient site’s soils were ripped to alleviate compaction and topsoiled with local clay-based topsoil. Native grass sods were transplanted from donor areas that were located within the approved development footprint area adjoining the bushland conservation area. The sods were cut into 200-300mm sections and placed in close proximity to on-another, not too dissimilar to a jig-saw puzzle or hand cut turf, to make a continuous grassy layer, with minimal gaps between transplanted sods. The transplanted sods were lightly filled and top-dressed with local topsoil to fill and level out any gaps between the sods, and then trimmed to surrounding ground levels and watered-in well. (Figs 4 and 5)

Figure 4. Native grasses being transplanted, very close together like turf sods at Kellyville. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 4. Native grasses being transplanted, very close together like turf sods at Kellyville. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 5. Same Kellyvillle site about a year later. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 5. Same Kellyvillle site about a year later. (Photo: Ecohort)

3.Spinifex transplanting on coastal sand dunes. In this project the rhizomous native grass sprinfex was transplanted into dunes from nearby areas at Corrimal Beach in the Wollongong local government area, as a part of works associated with Council’s 2013 Dune Management Implementation Plan. The spinifex transplanting works were undertaken in conjunction with weed control and tubestock reconstruction planting works.(Figs 6 and 7)

Figure 6. Spinifex being transplanted into a section of dune at 2-4-plants per m2. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 6. Spinifex being transplanted into a section of dune at 2-4-plants per m2. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 7. Section of spinifex that has established from previous transplanting. (Photo: Ecohort)

Figure 7. Section of spinifex that has established from previous transplanting. (Photo: Ecohort)

Benefits and characteristics of direct transplanting include:

  • Reduction of lengthy plant propagation and seed collection phases;
  • Avoidance of seed maturity restrictions and clashes with project construction phases;
  • Guaranteed achievement of local provenance material;
  • Ability to obtain species that are difficult to propagate or collect seed from;
  • Potential inclusion of other plant species from donor to recipient sites (translocated as seed in the soil of transplanted sods);
  • Achievement of similar densities to tubestock planting or turf-laying;
  • Ease of implementation (transplanting monocots is a technique that has been long-practiced by bush regenerators, gardeners and horticulturists);
  • Ability to conduct the treatments on a small scale using hand tools, or large scale using heavy machinery.

Barriers and challenges to direct transplanting include:

  • Timing/gaining consent difficulties relating to compatibility of works between donor and recipient sites;
  • Convincing consent authorities of the efficacy of this method;
  • Technical issues: proximity of donor and recipient sites;
  • Cost, (including maintenance and watering) which can be higher than other methods;
  • Difficulty in transplanting some monocots;
  • Potential for soil pathogen spread.

Acknowledgements:  This summary was originally presented to the November 2014 Symposium ‘Rebuilding Ecosystems’ held at the Teachers’ Federation Conference Centre, Sydney by the Australian Association of Bush Regenerators (AABR)

Contact: Edgar Freimanis, Ecohort, ( PO Box 6540 Rouse Hill NSW Australia 2156 Tel: +61 418 162-970 Email: ed @ecohort.com)

Understanding the original distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the Murray-Darling Basin.

Key words: Oral history, native fish, Native Fish Strategy

Threats and Impacts: One of the main goals of the Native Fish Strategy (NFS) was to return native fish communities in the MDB to 60% of that prior to European settlement. Fundamental to realising this goal is knowledge of the original distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the MDB. However, there has been limited readily available information on the rivers and their fish populations at the time of European settlement.

Broad aim and specific objectives: The aims of this project were to:

  1. collect, collate and analyse historical information on native fish in the southern half of the Murray-Darling Basin;
  2. identify the original distribution and habitat preferences of Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) and resolve the ongoing debate on this issue;
  3. identify the original distribution and habitat preferences of the other large fish species, primarily those of interest to anglers;
  4. collect general historical information on native fish, in particular aspects of their biology;
  5. document changes or events that may have contributed to the decline of native fish;
  6. present the information collected in a format to assist scientists and managers engaged in the recovery of native fish but also accessible to the general public so as to increase community awareness of the plight of Trout cod and other native fish species.

Methods: Photographs, written accounts and oral history were collected on the past distribution and abundance of Trout Cod and other large native fishes of the Basin. For Trout Cod, records held in museum databases were located and used, and nearly 400 photographs of catches of Cod and other native fish were located and examined, most of them predating 1950 and the oldest dating from 1862. Photographs were sourced from anglers, angling clubs, individuals, historical societies, books and newspapers.

An extensive search of old written accounts of native fish captures was also undertaken, including writings of early settlers, naturalists and anglers, newspaper records, hand-written manuscripts, indigenous accounts, and reports and appendices.

Figure 1. A 124 pound Murray Cod shot in the Barr Creek near Kerang 1939. On the left is Eddie Ashton, older brother of Mick Ashton who stands on the right. (Photo courtesy of Mick Ashton)

Figure 1. Brothers Eddie Ashton (left) and Mick Ashton – with a 124 pound Murray Cod shot in the Barr Creek near Kerang 1939.  (Photo courtesy of Mick Ashton)

Local historical societies and angling clubs were contacted to help identify senior residents who may possess knowledge relating to native fish. Participants were interviewed to gather information on their personal history, fish captures, locations and timing, and the changes they observed over the years. Photographs were used to aid validation of species caught. Interviews were recorded and provided to the individual for correction and confirmation. Over 140 people were contacted with the two oldest being 95 years of age whose memories extended back into the 1920s.

The reliability of individual pieces of historical evidence relating to the presence of native fish in specific waters was assessed and rated as high, moderate or low. From the information collected maps were created for each catchment recording the locations of historical accounts for each species considered to be of high quality. Historical material was collated and summarised for each catchment.

Figure 2. Photo of fish caught from the Goulburn River at McGee’s Beach, Alexandra, 1924. Fish include trout cod, Murray cod, Macquarie perch and catfish. Young Russell Stillman is visible in the foreground. (Photo courtesy of Russell Stillman)

Figure 2. Fish caught from the Goulburn River at McGee’s Beach, Alexandra, 1924. Fish include Trout Cod, Murray Cod, Macquarie Perch and Catfish. Young Russell Stillman is visible in the foreground. (Photo courtesy of Russell Stillman)

Figure 3, The Murray River near Corryong c1910. Changes are already evident including a bank covered in Scotch Thistles (Photo courtesy of Bob Whitehead)

Figure 3, The Murray River near Corryong c1910. Changes are already evident including a bank covered in Scotch Thistles (Photo courtesy of Bob Whitehead)

Findings: From all of the historical sources, including newspaper records, journal entries, indigenous accounts, naturalist’s notes and personal photographs, a wealth of information from across the MDB has been collected on Trout Cod, with much also on the other larger fish species e.g. Murray Cod (Maccullochella peelii), Golden Perch (Macquaria Ambigua), Silver Perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), Macquarie Perch (Macquaria australasica), Catfish (Tandanus tandanus) and River blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus). For each of these species the following information is presented:

  •          European discovery
  •          Aboriginal and European names
  •          Distribution and habitat associations
  •          Translocations
  •          Size
  •          Community value
  •          Current conservation status
  •          Map of former distribution and abundance

From this information a reliable indication of the pre-European settlement distribution and abundance of the larger native fish species of the MDB was constructed.

Lessons learned and future directions:  This project has provided an indication of the distribution and abundance of Trout Cod and other large native fish species in the MDB prior European settlement. By examining this information, researchers and managers can get an idea of what populations of Trout Cod used to be like and set targets for rehabilitation efforts to achieve the goal of the NFS to return native fish populations back to 60% of their pre-European settlement condition.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies: This project was funded through the Murray-Darling Basin Authority’s Native Fish Strategy.

Contact: William Truman, Tel: + 61 7 4042 4800, Email: williamtrueman@bigpond.com.

Link: http://australianriverrestorationcentre.com.au/mdb/troutcod/book.php

Assessing the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management in Queensland

Key words: Integrated Pest Management, pest fish control, Native Fish Strategy

Threats and Impacts: Carp (Cyprinus carpio) are believed to impact on native fish communities by increasing turbidity, up-rooting delicate shallow-rooted vegetation, competing with native fishes and other aquatic fauna for food and space, and indirectly promoting the development of toxic algal blooms.

All of the currently available methods for Carp control have limitations. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) involves the application of a range of technologies applied simultaneously, and focussing on achieving broader objectives (e.g. improved habitat) rather than simply reducing pest numbers.

Broad aim and specific objectives: The objectives of this project were to apply a range of Carp control techniques, as an integrated package, to:

  • intensively reduce Carp at a particular location, and measure the response;
  • achieve a significant reduction in damage caused by Carp using existing techniques; and,
  • demonstrate to the community the commitment to on-ground control.

The study was conducted at four lagoon sites, two in the Condamine River catchment, and two in the Macintyre river catchment.

Methods: One lagoon in each catchment was selected as an experimental site for intensive carp removal, and the other was used as a reference site which received no carp treatment.

Each site was sampled on eight occasions for the following response variables: water quality (temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, light penetration, available forms of nitrogen and phosphorus); phytoplankton biovolume and diversity; zooplankton biomass and diversity; benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity; native fish abundance, biomass and diversity; carp abundance, biomass and size distribution; and abundance of piscivorous birds and turtles.

One sampling event was conducted before the carp reduction treatment and a further seven samples were performed after Carp reduction. Carp removal employed a variety of methods based on boat electrofishing, gill nets, fyke nets, angling, commercial-scale netting and traps, and screens to prevent re-entry of Carp.

Figure 1: electrofishing during carp removal at rainbow lagoon. (Photo courtesy Peter Gehrke)

Figure 1: electrofishing during carp removal at rainbow lagoon. (Photo courtesy Peter Gehrke)

Figure 2: Researcher Sarah St Pierre live picking macroinvertebrates (Photo courtesy of Nissa Murphy)

Figure 2: Researcher Sarah St Pierre live picking macroinvertebrates (Photo courtesy of Nissa Murphy)

Findings: In Rainbow Lagoon (one of the experimental sites), Carp removal achieved an estimated 51% reduction in abundance and 43% biomass reduction, compared with 41% abundance and 33% biomass reductions in Warra Lagoon (the other experimental site). Reduction of Carp biomass by approximately 30 kg per ha allowed a threefold increase of more than 90 kg per ha in native fish that are eaten by larger fish species and fish-eating birds.

The size and weight of Carp removed differed markedly between Warra Lagoon and Rainbow Lagoon. Rainbow Lagoon had large numbers of small Carp, while Warra Lagoon had relatively large numbers of big Carp, with relatively few small individuals. The differences in Carp populations between lagoons are likely to result in different ecosystem responses over time.

Boat electrofishing was the most effective method of Carp removal used; fyke nets were the second most effective method, while the number of Carp removed by angling was far lower than other methods.

A succession of ‘transient’ responses to Carp reduction was observed in treatment lagoons. Whilst the exact nature of succession differed between lagoons, the generalised pattern following Carp reduction was evidenced as (i) an increase in biomass of large zooplankton; (ii) an increase in abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates; and (iii) increased biomass of gudgeons (Hypseleotris spp.) and Bony Herring (Nematalosa erebi).

These results suggest that of the full set of potential ecosystem responses to Carp reduction, only a subset may be demonstrated in individual locations because of the influence of local drivers and constraints. Due to a range of factors, the environmental responses of several variables, including water quality, macrophytes, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates, could not be linked to Carp control.

Lessons learned and future directions:Modest reductions in Carp biomass can provide significant benefits for native fish and, if continued, may be expected to translate into longer-term increases in native fish populations.

  • Carp in turbid wetlands interact strongly with native fish through pelagic food web pathways involving zooplankton, as well as benthic macroinvertebrate pathways.
  • Carp reduction has the potential to contribute significantly to restoring populations of native fish by increasing food availability.
  • Environmental outcomes of Carp reduction include direct conservation benefits to native fish, potential increases in popular recreational species and improved aquatic ecosystem health.
  • Piscivorous fish (e.g. Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii) are likely to have increased prey availability as a result of Carp reduction.
  • Improving native fish populations in key wetlands by reducing Carp biomass may strengthen the value of permanent lagoons as drought refuges for native fish.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies: This project was funded through the Murray-Darling Basin Authority’s Native Fish Strategy.

Contact: Sarah St Pierre, SMEC. Tel: + 61 (07) 3029 6600.

Link: http://www.finterest.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/MD923%20Integrated%20pest%20management%20QLD.pdf

The identification and protection of drought refuges for native fish in the Murray-Darling Basin.

Key words: drought, refuge, native fish, Native Fish Strategy

Threats and Impacts: From 1996 to 2009, the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) experienced severe drought conditions. As the impacts of the drought worsened, the need for improved and co-ordinated management responses became increasingly important to protect key ecological assets and critical aquatic habitats and ecosystems. Within the MDB it was uncertain whether an adequate network of drought refuges (e.g. flowing perennial river reaches, deep waterholes) remained to preserve native fish species/populations through extended drought. This project was established to address this knowledge gap.

Aims: The broad aims of the project were to:

  • define, identify and explore the current status and management of drought refuges in the MDB (Figs 1 and 2); and,
  • develop guidelines and an approach to identify, prioritise and protect drought refuges for native fish that can be implemented across the MDB.
Figure 1: A drying refuge (Photo courtesy of Luke Pearce)

Figure 1: A drying refuge (Photo courtesy of Luke Pearce)

Figure 2: Drought refuge on the Condamine River (Photo courtesy of Michael Hutchison)

Figure 2: Drought refuge on the Condamine River (Photo courtesy of Michael Hutchison)

Methods: The current status and management of refuges were explored using a number of techniques including questionnaires, an expert/management workshop and a review of relevant literature and management programs. This process identified the types of habitats that serve as drought refuges across the MDB, the key native fish species that have been targeted for protection under drought response programs, key threats and the current management responses/actions undertaken for refuge protection. In order to catalogue refuge sites, a preliminary list of critical sites was developed in collaboration with managers and experts.

An approach to identify and protect refuges was developed in conjunction with regional agencies and jurisdictions from two pilot valleys: the Goulburn Broken catchment in northern Victoria and the Moonie catchment in south-eastern Queensland. Under this phase of the project, definitions and criteria for identifying and prioritising refuges were developed in conjunction with management agencies. A management tool was developed for collating refuge values and habitat attributes, as well as threats to the maintenance and improvement of these important characteristics. This approach may be used for the prioritisation of interventions based on key management principles, including: threatened species, protection of habitat biodiversity, water allocation, catchment management actions, fisheries management actions and restoration.

Based on the information elicited from the pilot valley analyses, a template was produced to assist in refuge identification and management across the MDB. This template documents a process that can be integrated into regional natural resource management frameworks across the MDB, acknowledging that different states and regions are subject to various legislative and policy environments and possesses varying levels of information, data, planning structures and intervention opportunities that relate to aquatic habitat protection.                                                                

Findings: A wide range of aquatic habitats were considered important as drought refuges, with unregulated waterways the most commonly identified habitat type, and of the greatest concern to managers. In some instances, key native fish species were used to identify particular drought refuges. The protection and/or management of the refuges for these species either followed a ‘single species’ approach (more common in the drier, southern MDB) or ‘multi-species/community’ approach (more common in the northern MDB).

Refuges were defined and identified at larger spatial scales in the northern MDB and at smaller, site-specific scales in the southern MDB. The reason for these different approaches reflects the varying intensity of drought impacts across the MDB. These different approaches to the management and protection of drought refuges reflect the different aspects of native fish ecology, in terms of resistance versus resilience.

This study concluded that a holistic approach to drought management was required with drought refuge protection plans incorporating enough flexibility to identify and invest in emergency short-term responses during peak drought periods as well as having guidelines in place aimed at broader scales to promote long-term resilience in native fish populations.

Lessons learned and future directions:  This study has reinforced that priority areas which act as drought refuges require adequate management to ensure the long term survival of native fish populations. This study identified the two scales at which drought management operates and the strengths of each scale to address both short and long-term impacts of drought on native fish and their habitats. This information will ultimately lead to better drought management regarding native fish and their habitats, which will minimise the risk of loss of native fish species and populations and preserve native fish habitats.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies: This project was funded through the Murray-Darling Basin Authority’s Native Fish Strategy.

Contact: Dr Dale McNeil, South Australian Research and Development Institute. Tel: + 61  8 8207 5342, Email:  dale.mcneil@sa.gov.au

Captions

 

Figure 2: A drying refuge (Photo courtesy of Luke Pearce)

LINK: http://www.sardi.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/186702/Drought_Refuges_for_Native_Fish.pdf

The potential for Mozambique Tilapia to invade the Murray–Darling Basin and the likely impacts: a review of existing information

Key words: Tilapia, pest fish, invasion risk, Native Fish Strategy

Threats and Impacts: Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) is a major pest fish species in Australia (Fig 1). A successful invader, it has managed to dominate natural waterways into which it has been introduced. It is not currently found in the Murray–Darling Basin; however, it has established thriving populations in catchments neighbouring the Basin. In some places, it is only a short distance from the northern headwaters. There is a high risk that this species will be introduced to the Basin.

Project aims and methods: Despite the high risk of introduction, prior to this project minimal work had been done to estimate the potential range Tilapia might occupy in the Basin, or to predict its possible impacts on natural, economic or social assets. This project set out to review available literature and assess likely impacts in an attempt to provide some information about these potential threats.

In order to estimate the potential range of Tilapia in the Murray–Darling Basin, this project set out to to:

  • predict the range in the Basin where Tilapia may survive through colder winter temperatures;
  • determine the length of the feasible breeding season (including the number of broods possible in that time) in different ranges; and,
  • determine the portion of the year in which Tilapia may feed and is therefore likely to have impacts on ecological processes through the food web.

This included:

  • estimating the lower temperature tolerance for Tilapia based on literature and survival rates of populations already infesting locations in Queensland;
  • identifying the minimum winter temperatures recorded at different locations throughout the Basin; and,
  • using the distribution of native fish with similar temperature tolerances to Tilapia as a surrogate.
Figure 1. Female Mozambique Tilapia carrying juveniles in her mouth (Photo courtesy of QLD DAFF)

Figure 1. Female Mozambique Tilapia carrying juveniles in her mouth (Photo courtesy of QLD DAFF)

Figure 2. male Mozambique Tilapia (Photo courtesy of QLD DAFF)

Figure 2. male Mozambique Tilapia (Photo courtesy of QLD DAFF)

Figure 3. Stunted Tilapia (male top, female bottom) mature at only a few centimetres in length, (Photo courtesy of QLD DAFF)

Figure 3. Stunted Tilapia (male top, female bottom) mature at only a few centimetres in length, (Photo courtesy of QLD DAFF)

Findings: Tilapia has a wide and varied diet and can occupy a diverse range of habitats, however, the one factor that appears to affect Tilapia is its vulnerability to cold temperatures. Based upon minimum temperature tolerated by Tilapia and the minimum water temperature data available, Tilapia have the potential to infest the northern Basin in Queensland and parts of New South Wales, through the western inland catchments of NSW and down to the Lower Lakes and lower Murray in South Australia. This equates to a distribution occupying approximately half of the MDB.

Tilapia is capable of sustaining reproducing populations under the conditions found in much of the MDB, as breeding and feeding can occur for significant portions of the year. In the northern parts of the Basin, and many southern parts, median water temperatures could see a breeding season of at least 3–6 months in duration with around 4–6 broods for each female in each breeding season.

Tilapia impacts have been recorded in a number of locations both in Australia and overseas. The key impacts recorded include major declines in commercial and traditional fisheries, fish extinctions, destruction of beds of aquatic plants) and declines in water quality. Some of the predicted direct impacts of Tilapia on the Murray–Darling Basin include:

  • direct predation by Tilapia;
  • competition for resources (food, habitat);
  • destruction of macrophytes and other aquatic plants used as breeding or nursery habitat by native species;
  • habitat disturbance;
  • transmission of diseases and parasites;
  • competitive exclusion of native fish from favourable habitat by tilapia’s aggressive behaviour;
  • increase of blue-green algal blooms (through resuspension of nutrients);
  • winter die-offs of tilapia (polluting waterways); and,
  • undermining river banks due to destruction of river plants and nesting behaviour.

Review of recent studies indicate that Tilapia consume juvenile native fish, including members of genera that occur in the Murray–Darling Basin, such as Rainbowfishes (Melanotaeniidae), Carp Gudgeons (Hypseleotris spp.), Hardyheads (Atherinidae), Bony Herring (Nematalosa erebi) and Glassfish (Ambassidae). It is possible that the potential preying of tilapia on native fish has been underestimated. 

Lessons learned and future directions: This project highlighted that invasion of the MDB by Tilapia could be disastrous for many (up to 18) native fish species of the MDB. Areas and species most at risk from Tilapia and the likely impacts if invasion occurred were identified. The study recommends a ‘prevention is better than cure’ approach with respect to Tilapia invasion and highlights education and awareness as a key factor. This review should be most pertinent in areas close to current distribution of wild tilapia populations (i.e. north-eastern MDB). 

Stakeholders and Funding bodies: This project was funded through the Murray-Darling Basin Authority’s Native Fish Strategy.

Contacts: Dr Michael Hutchison, Queensland Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry. Tel: + 61 7 3400 2037, Email: Michael.Hutchison@daff.qld.gov.au

Link http://www.mdba.gov.au/sites/default/files/pubs/Tilapia-report.pdf

Assessment of an infrared fish counter (Vaki Riverwatcher) to quantify fish migrations in the Murray-Darling Basin

Key words: infrared, fish counting, VAKI Riverwatcher, fish migration, Native Fish Strategy

A number of fishways have been constructed under the auspices of the NFS to help reinstate passage of fish past a number of barriers in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB). Because it is too expensive to continuously trap fishways to gather information on migratory behaviour, using an electronic monitoring unit to continuously monitor fish migrations is an attractive option for monitoring fish movement and fishway effectiveness. The Vaki Riverwatcher technology has been successfully used in Northern Hemisphere rivers to count and measure the size, date and shapes of fish which pass through an infrared scanner. Prior to this project, this technology had not been trialled on Australian rivers and species to evaluate utility for monitoring purposes.

Broad aim and specific objectives: This study aimed to perform a field study on the effectiveness of an infrared fish counter, the Vaki Riverwatcher in anticipation of wider application throughout the Murray-Darling Basin. The limitations and advantages of the system were fully explored in both controlled and field environments.

The objectives of this project were to:

  • perform a field assessment of an infrared fish counter in the Basin;
  • determine if turbidity reduces the accuracy of an infrared fish counter; and
  • determine how fish behave in relation to an infrared fish counter and fish trap.

Methods: Laboratory trials were undertaken to determine the ability of the Riverwatcher (Figs 1-3) to cope with different turbidity and fish migration rates. Silver Perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) were passed through the unit under a range of turbidity between 0 and 100 Nephelometric turbidity units (NTU).

Field trials were undertaken at Lock 10, on the Murray River (near Wentworth), which had been retro-fitted with a vertical slot fishway in 2006. The unit was used in conjunction with a DIDSON sonar unit and a standard fish trap, to assess the ability of the Riverwatcher to distinguish different species, count migrating fish, estimate the size of migratory fish and to assess fish behaviour in and around the unit.

Field trials were also performed to test the Vaki Riverwatcher system under river conditions. The unit was used in conjunction with other electronic monitoring gear, and also fish traps, to assess the ability of the Riverwatcher to distinguish different species, count migrating fish, estimate the size of migratory fish and to assess fish behaviour in and around the unit.

Figure 1. The Vaki Riverwatcher (Photo courtesy of Lee Baumgartner)

Figure 1. The Vaki Riverwatcher (Photo courtesy of Lee Baumgartner)

Figure 2. Installing the vaki riverwatcher into the lock 10 fishway (Photo courtesy of Lee Baumgartner)

Figure 2. Installing the vaki riverwatcher into the lock 10 fishway (Photo courtesy of Lee Baumgartner)

Figure 3. Manipulating turbidity to quantify vaki effectiveness (photo courtesy of Lee Baumgartner)

Figure 3. Manipulating turbidity to quantify vaki effectiveness (photo courtesy of Lee Baumgartner)

Findings: The Riverwatcher performed well and counted hundreds of migrating fish. Fish counts from the unit roughly corresponded with those caught within a fish trap upstream of the unit. However, the unit tended to underestimate fish size and some fish avoided contact with the unit.

Experimental trials on the impacts of turbidity on the Riverwatcher revealed that the unit generally overestimated fish counts during low turbidity but underestimated during high turbidity. It was also difficult to identify fish that actively avoiding passage through the unit.

Lessons learned and future directions: The Riverwatcher unit provided a powerful mechanism to monitor fish movement but often underestimated fish numbers and lengths which detracted from the quality of the hardware. If these limitations are overcome, or at least quantified, the unit would represent a cost effective mechanism to count and measure migrating fish.

The unit has a range of potential applications including within fishways, at floodplain regulators, within supply channels or other points of suspected fish movement. It is flexible in terms of operation, but is limited by the restricted width of the scanner unit. Where width or depth is an issue, additional scanner units can be linked together to create an array which can give wider spatial coverage of the target area. Provided the site of application is a known point of fish movement, obtaining count and size data on migrants would be possible and should be considered for a long-term deployment at a key site of fish migration in the Basin. Additional trials would help to determine if the gear is suitable for determining trends in fish movement over a longer time period.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies: This project was funded through the Murray-Darling Basin Authority’s Native Fish Strategy. 

Contact: Dr Lee Baumgartner, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. Tel: + 61 2 6958 8215, Email: lee.baumgartner@dpi.nsw.gov.au

LINK: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/322970/AE_2010_Output-1629_Baumgartner-et-all_Vaki-Riverwatcher-report_REPORT.pdf

Scoping study to determine the methodologies and data availability for identifying native fish hotspots in the Murray-Darling Basin

Key words: hotspots, resilience, native fish, Native Fish Strategy

Recent ecological research at the landscape scale suggests that there may be key locations, or “hotspots”, that play a disproportionate role in sustaining species and ecological communities. The identification of native fish “hotspots’ in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) would greatly assist managers in protecting biodiversity and maintaining important ecological processes for native fishes.

Broad aim and specific objectives: This scoping study was undertaken to help guide future investment in the identification of “hotspots” in the Basin, by conducting broad reviews of the literature and available data, and consulting extensively with a range of relevant experts to:

  • develop an appropriate definition for what constitutes a native fish hotspot in the MDB;
  • identify the requirements of resource managers and other stakeholder groups including the Authority to maximise utility and adoption of the hotspots project;
  • identify information already available which may be useful to identify native fish ‘hotspots’;
  • determine appropriate metrics/methodologies to identify geographical areas or ‘hotspots’ across the MDB that are significant for native fishes in terms of species diversity, population densities and key ecological processes;
  • develop an appropriate experimental design for a large-scale project to demonstrate the applicability of the hotspots concept and subsequently enable the extrapolation across the whole of the MDB; and,
  • provide a template for similar studies to be undertaken on other fish species in the Basin.
Figure 1. A healthy stretch of the Murrumbidgee with plenty of habitat for native fish (Photo courtesy of Jamin Forbes)

Figure 1. A healthy stretch of the Murrumbidgee with plenty of habitat for native fish (Photo courtesy of Jamin Forbes)

Figure 2. Identification of native fish 'hotspots' would greatly assist in the management of native fish communities (Photo courtesy of Jamin Forbes)

Figure 2. Identification of native fish ‘hotspots’ would greatly assist in the management of native fish communities (Photo courtesy of Jamin Forbes)

Methods:  The first stage of the scoping study was to define the hotspots concept and management applicability of the project for key stakeholders within the MDB. This was achieved through an extensive review of the background literature of the hotspots concept (both within Australia and globally) and an expert panel workshop to:

  • clearly define the hotspots concept for use in the MDB and within the project, with particular reference to types of criteria;
  • explore spatial and temporal variability within existing datasets for identifying hotspots; and,
  • explore the management applicability and use of MDB hotspots for native fish.

A second expert panel workshop was held to review relevant ecological information for the priority species and communities, sampling methodologies and the spatial and temporal coverage of existing data and with the aims of:

  • determining appropriate sampling methodologies for identifying hotspots of priority species and communities; and,
  • using this methodology and data availability to develop an appropriate study design which could be used in Stage II of the of the project to identify ‘hotspots’ across the MDB that are significant for native fish.

Findings: The study mainly focussed on four high priority native fish species; Murray Cod (Macculochella peelii), Silver Perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua) and Freshwater Catfish (Tandanus tandanus), though some consideration was also given to some other species of conservation concern. The study defined a “hotspot” as being “areas within riverscapes that have extraordinary importance for fish or processes that sustain native fish populations”.

The study highlighted the importance of understanding the processes underlying hotspots in order to maximise the efficiency of management actions and conservation measures to ensure cost-effective return on interventions. To achieve this, a suite of suitable metrics were developed which encompassed both direct measures of fish and measures of the ecological drivers supporting them for each of the priority species and communities.

The study concluded that insufficient data currently exists to adequately identify hotspots across the MDB. However, this project provided an approach and suitable methods to collect relevant data that could then be used with current data to determine and describe hotspots in the MDB.

It was recommended that the next step should be to investigate large-scale patterns in focus species abundance using existing datasets, determine the applicability of the hotspots concept for all metrics in a subset of river valleys, then expand on observed trends to other valleys to identify hotspots throughout the MDB.

Lessons learned and future directions:

The identification of “hotspots’ in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) would greatly assist managers in protecting biodiversity and maintaining important ecological processes for native fishes. This study provides a pathway by which to engage the next step in the process of validating the hotspot concept in the MDB. This will identify critically important habitat required for protecting or rehabilitation to support priority native fish species.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies:  This project was funded through the Murray-Darling Basin Authority’s Native Fish Strategy.

Contacts: Zeb Tonkin, South Australian Research and Development Institute. Tel: + 61 3 9450 8600, Email: zeb.tonkin@depi.vic.gov.au.