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- Post-fire assisted regeneration at Scottsdale Reserve, Bredbo NSW
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- Regenerating and planting of rainforest buffers to protect homes and rainforest from future fires
- Second trial of watering device design to facilitate seed dispersal into revegetation sites
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Bruce Clarkson, Catherine Kirby and Kiri Wallace
[Update of EMR feature – Clarkson, B.D. & Kirby, C.L. (2016) Ecological restoration in urban environments in New Zealand. Ecological Management & Restoration, 17:3, 180-190. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/emr.12229]
Key words: urban ecology; restoration; indigenous biodiversity; New ZealandIntroduction. Our 2016 EMR feature reviewed the state of research and practice of ecological restoration in urban environments in New Zealand. We concluded that urban restoration can influence and support regional and national biodiversity goals. We also observed that research effort was light, lacking interdisciplinary breadth and may not be sufficiently connected to restoration practice to ensure long-term success of many projects.
While it is only three years since that review was published, urban ecological restoration continues to grow and evolve, and the policy setting and political context have changed significantly. New threats and opportunities have emerged. The spread of a dieback disease and the more recent arrival of myrtle rust, rapid uptake of Predator Free 2050, emergence of the One Billion Trees programme, a surge in housing and subdivision development, and a potentially more supportive policy framework are all major factors.
Threats and opportunities. Kauri dieback disease is severely affecting urban kauri forests and individual Kauri (Agathis australis) trees in Auckland and other northern North Island urban centres (Fig. 1). Large forest areas adjoining Auckland, including most notably the Waitākere Range and large parts of the Hunua Range, are now closed to the public, preventing access to popular recreational areas. The dieback is caused by a fungus-like pathogen Phytophtora agathicida that is spread through soil movement. The disease may have arrived from overseas although this is uncertain. There is no known cure but research efforts are underway to find a large-scale treatment option.
Myrtle rust (Austropuccinia psidii) was first found on mainland New Zealand in May of 2017, probably arriving by wind from Australia. Myrtle rust threatens many iconic New Zealand plant species in the family Myrtaceae including Pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa), Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium), Rātā (Metrosideros robusta), Kānuka (Kunzea spp.), Waiwaka (Syzygium maire) or Swamp maire, and Ramarama (Lophomyrtus bullata). These species are all used to a greater or lesser extent in restoration planting or as specimen trees or shrubs in urban centres, depending on amenity or ecological context. Mānuka is widely used as a pioneer or nurse crop for native forest restoration and is critical to the economically important mānuka honey industry. Waiwaka is a feature of many swamp forest gully restoration projects in Hamilton and this would be a significant setback if they were badly affected. The impact of myrtle rust is still not clear but experience from Australia suggests it may take several years before it reaches population levels sufficient to cause significant damage.In response to a range of housing issues characterised by many as a New Zealand housing crisis, the previous and current government has embarked on several major initiatives to increase the housing stock. A $1B Housing Infrastructure Fund (HIF) was established in October 2016 with provision for interest free loans to local government to enable opening up of new large areas of housing. Many urban centres including Auckland, Tauranga, Hamilton and Queenstown made early applications to the fund. Hamilton City Council was successful in obtaining $290.4 M support for a new greenfield subdivision in Peacocke on the southern edge of the city. This subdivision is intended to enable development of some 3700 houses over the next 10 years and 8100 in 30 years. Approximately 720 ha of peri-urban pastoral agricultural land would eventually be developed (See summary). Coupled with this, and already in progress, is the construction of the Southern Links state highway and local arterial road network. The first proposed subdivision Amberfield covers 105 ha and consent hearings are currently in progress. The environmental impacts of the proposal and how they might be mitigated are being contested. In brief, survival of a small population of the critically endangered Long-tailed Bat (Chalinolobos turberculatus) is the main environmental focus but other aspects including the extent of greenspace and ecological restoration required for ecological compensation are being considered (Figs. 2, 3). With strong political pressure to solve the housing crisis in Hamilton and in other urban centres, making adequate provision for greenspace, especially urban forest, and preventing environmental degradation and indigenous biodiversity decline will be a major challenge. The Predator Free 2050 (PF2050) programme which gained government (National) approval in 2015, aims to eradicate Stoat (Mustela erminea), Ship Rat (Rattus rattus), Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) from the whole of New Zealand by 2050 (Department of Conservation 2018). PF2050 is now gaining significant traction in urban environments (Figs. 4, 5) with many urban centres having good numbers of community-led projects underway (See PFNZ National Trust map). Crofton Downs in Wellington was New Zealand’s first predator-free community project. Led by Kelvin Hastie this project has effectively reduced predator numbers to the point that some sensitive native birds e.g. Kākā (Nestor meridionalis), have begun to nest in this suburb after an absence of more than 100 years (See RNZ report). Also in Wellington, the Miramar Peninsula (Te Motu Kairangi) has become a focus, because of its advantageous geography, with a goal to make the area predator free by 2019. Possums had already been exterminated in 2006 (www.temotukairangi.co.nz). The One Billion Trees (1BT) programme was initiated by the new coalition government (Labour, NZ First, Greens) in 2017 with $238M released in 2018 for planting of both exotic and native trees across mixed land use types. It is not clear yet whether urban forest projects have received funding support but the guidelines suggest there is no reason why restoration of native forest in urban settings would not be eligible. While the emphasis is on exotic tree plantations, native species and long-term forest protection are increasingly being considered as viable options by the newly established government forestry agency Te Uru Rākau.
The policy setting for ecological restoration in urban environments is potentially becoming more favourable with the draft National Policy Statement on Indigenous Biodiversity (NPSIB) currently in review and the New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy under revision (See terms of reference). The draft NPSIB emphasises restoration of indigenous habitat in biodiversity depleted environments. Specifically, Policy 19: Restoring indigenous biodiversity depleted environments, recommends a target for indigenous land cover, which in urban areas and peri-urban areas must be at least 10 per cent. The revision of the New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy seems likely to give more emphasis to landscape scale restoration including urban environments.Research update. Using the same targeted Google Scholar search method as reported in the EMR feature we have found 18 new peer reviewed papers published between 2015 and July 2019 (see updated bibliography) that are strongly focused on restoration in New Zealand urban environments. The single paper noted for 2015 was missed in our previous search. Again, we have not included books, book chapters or grey literature. This compares very favourably with the total 27 papers listed in our 2016 review of which more than half dated from 2009. An increasing publication rate confirms increasing interest and research efforts in aspects of urban ecological restoration. While most of the publications remain in the ecological science realm there are now some informed by other disciplines including engineering, psychology, landscape architecture and health sciences.
Most notably since our 2016 review, a new government-funded (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment) research programme, People, Cities and Nature, began in November of 2016. This four-year $823 k per annum research programme ends in October of 2020 unless a funding rebid to be submitted in March 2020 is successful. The programme undertakes multidisciplinary research in nine NZ cities via six inter-related projects: restoration plantings; urban lizards; mammalian predators; Māori restoration values; green-space benefits and cross-sector alliances. While the emphasis was on the ecological science of urban restoration at the outset, the programme has become increasingly involved in understanding the multiple benefits of urban ecological projects including social cohesion and health and recreation benefits. The need to connect restoration research and practice has been met by undertaking multi-agency and community workshops involving researchers and practitioners in five cities to date with a further four scheduled before the programme ends.
Acknowledgements. The People Cities and Nature research programme is funded by the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment under grant number UOW1601.
Information. Bruce D. Clarkson, Environmental Research Institute, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand email@example.com; Catherine L. Kirby, Environmental Research Institute, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand firstname.lastname@example.org; and Kiri J. Wallace, Environmental Research Institute, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand email@example.com.
David Lindenmayer, Chris MacGregor, Natasha Robinson, Claire Foster, and Nick Dexter
[Update of EMR feature – David B. Lindenmayer, Christopher MacGregor, Nick Dexter, Martin Fortescue and Peter Cochrane (2013) Booderee National Park Management: Connecting science and management. Ecological Management & Restoration, 14:1, 2-10. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/emr.12027]
Keywords: Invasive animal and plant control, reintroduction, monitoring
Introduction. Booderee National Park is an iconic, species-rich, coastal reserve that supports a range of threatened and endangered native animals and plants. Several key management actions have been implemented to promote the conservation of biodiversity in Booderee National Park. These include the control of an exotic predator (the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes), the control of highly invasive Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata), the management of fire, and the reintroduction of previously extinct native mammals. A key part of work at Booderee National Park has been a long-term monitoring program that commenced in late 2002 and which has aimed to quantify the effectiveness of major management interventions, including the four listed above. The monitoring program has documented the long-term trajectories of populations of birds, arboreal marsupials, terrestrial mammals, reptiles, frogs and native plants in a range of major vegetation types (from heathland and sedgeland to woodland, forest and rainforest) and in response to fire, and weed and feral predator control. Importantly, the monitoring program has provided a foundational platform from which a suite of post-graduate studies and other research programs have been completed.
Further works undertaken. A key part of the researcher-manager partnership has been to analyse the long-term trajectories of populations of mammals, birds and reptiles in Booderee National Park. The monitoring data indicate that many species of mammals are declining, with some having become recently locally extinct (e.g. Greater Glider Petauroides volans) or close to extinction in the reserve (e.g. Common Ringtail Possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus) . This is despite populations of these species persisting in nearby reserves. Robust interrogation of the multi-taxa monitoring data has been unable to identify reasons for these declines. Interestingly, the declines observed for mammals have not been observed to date in other vertebrate groups, including birds, reptiles and amphibians. An experimentally-based reintroduction program for the Greater Glider aims to not only re-establish populations of the species in Booderee National Park, but also to identify the reasons for the original decline. That program will be in addition to reintroduction programs already underway for other mammal species, the Long-nosed Potoroo (Potorous tridactylus), the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) and Eastern Quoll (Dasyurus vivverinus) that used to inhabit Booderee National Park but which went extinct many decades earlier.
Additional research being undertaken in Booderee National Park has included: (1) studies of the effectiveness of control efforts for Bitou Bush and associated recovery of native vegetation and native fauna, (2) the interactive effects of fire and browsing on native plants and an array of animal groups, and (3) studies of leaf litter and other fuel dynamics in relation to previous fire history and macropod browsing.
Further results to date. Research and monitoring in the past six years have resulted in many new insights including some of considerable value for informing restoration programs. A small subset of these findings is outlined below.
- Conventional approaches to the control of invasive Bitou Bush entail spraying ultra-low volume herbicide (Fig. 1), followed by burning of the “cured” dead material, and then respraying of the seedlings that germinate after fire. This spray-burn-spray protocol is both the most ecologically effective and the most cost-effective way of controlling Bitou Bush and, at the same time, facilitates the recovery of native vegetation. More recent analysis has revealed spray frequency as the most important determinant of long-term control. There are mixed effects of control methods on native species; plant species abundance was positively related to Bitou Bush control, while native bird abundance (except for Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus, Fig 2.) and mammal abundance were weakly negatively associated with Bitou control.
- There can be strong interactions between the occurrence of fire and browsing by macropods on native plants as well as particular groups of animals such as spiders.
- Reintroduction programs for the Southern Brown Bandicoot and Eastern Quoll have been relatively successful, although the latter species suffers high rates of mortality, particularly as a result of fox predation and collisions with motor vehicles. Nevertheless, populations of both species have survived over multiple years and reproduced successfully.
Lessons learned and future directions. The work at Booderee National Park is a truly collaborative partnership between reserve managers, a university and the local Indigenous community. A key part of the enduring, long-term success of the project has been that a full-time employee of The Australian National University has been stationed permanently in the Parks Australia office in the Jervis Bay Territory. That person (CM) works on an almost daily basis within Booderee National Park and this provides an ideal way to facilitate communication of new research and monitoring results to managers. It also enables emerging management concerns to be included as part of adaptive monitoring practices.
One of the key lessons learned from the long-term work has been the extent of ecological “surprises” – that is, highly unexpected results, including those which continue to remain unexplained. An example is the rapid loss of the Greater Glider and the major decline in populations of the Common Ringtail Possum. One of the clear benefits of this integrated monitoring-management team has been the rapid response to emerging threats. For example in response to high rates of mortality of reintroduced Eastern Quolls, control of the Red Fox was intensified within the park and greater cross-tenure control efforts with neighbouring private and public land managers have commenced. Regular evaluation of monitoring data and management actions has also enabled careful examination of the kinds of risks that can compromise reintroduction programs. These and other learnings will inform other, future reintroduction and translocation programs that are planned for Booderee National Park such as that for the Greater Glider.
Stakeholders and funding bodies. Ongoing work has been supported by many funding bodies and partners. These include the Wreck Bay Aboriginal Community who are the Traditional Owners of Booderee National Park as well as Parks Australia who co-manage the park with the Wreck Bay Aboriginal Community. Other key funders include the Department of Defence, the Thomas Foundation, The National Environmental Science Program (Threatened Species Recovery Hub), the Australian Research Council, the Margaret Middleton Foundation, and the Norman Wettenhall Foundation. Partnerships with Rewilding Australia, Taronga Conservation Society, WWF Australia, NSW Forestry Corporation and various wildlife sanctuaries have been instrumental to reintroduction programs.
Contact information. David Lindenmayer, Chris MacGregor, Natasha Robinson and Claire Foster are with the National Environmental Science Program (Threatened Species Recovery Hub), Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University (Canberra, ACT, 2601, firstname.lastname@example.org). Nick Dexter is with Parks Australia, Jervis Bay Territory, Australia, 2540.
Examination of options for removal and disposal of Carp from fishways along the Murray River – including the Williams’ Carp Separation Cage
Key words: European carp, ethical disposal, pest fish, fishways, Native Fish Strategy.
The introduced fish species Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been shown to impact on native fish in many ways, including through direct predation as well as competition for resources such as food, shelter and breeding sites. The “Sea to Hume” fishway program has seen the construction of fishways at sites along the Murray River from the tidal barrages to Hume Dam. While the primary aim has been to improve migration of native fishes, the fishways also facilitate the passage of Carp, potentially providing access to upstream habitats (including spawning habitats) for large numbers of this alien species (Fig 1). The Williams’ Carp Separation Cage is designed to offer a way of removing Carp from fishways without significantly impacting on migrating native fishes.
This research project set out to examine issues and options associated with harvesting Carp at fishways along the Murray River. The study looked at options for harvesting Carp at fishways along the Murray River with an emphasis on the use of the Williams’ Carp Separation Cage (Fig 2), together with the ethical and logistic issues associated with the disposal of Carp.
How the options were examined: The project team reviewed available literature on methods for the collection and removal of Carp. Design constraints and factors affecting performance were considered, as were recommendations made to enhance functionality and effectiveness. Input from each jurisdiction was considered (to determine capacity and willingness to implement collection programs) as were markets for both human and industrial use (including processing requirements and logistics).
- The Williams’ Carp Separation Cage was found in most instances to be the preferred method of harvesting Carp. Other methods such as trapping, netting or electrofishing below a weir were considered to have merit for further consideration where the high biomass of Carp may physically impact on migratory native fishes.
- Harvesting should focus on the migration of pre-spawning adult Carp (about August to December).
- Disposal methods should favour those that utilize Carp as a resource.
- While the engagement of commercial fishers is desirable, the commercial Carp fishery is only marginally viable, especially in NSW. It is likely that the involvement of commercial fishers beyond high density sites will have to be subsidized or a coordinated program of collection and storage (e.g. freezers) will need to be implemented.
- Other options need to be investigated including burial, cremation and composing.
- Carp must be euthanased in an ethical manner. Currently accepted techniques include the use of anaethetics although with large numbers of fish an ice slurry may be the only practical method. The report also recommends trialling commercially available percussive stunning machines.
A report was produced at the end of the project (Jackson, P. (2009). Final report for River Murray Water, Murray-Darling Basin Authority). This recommends rolling out a coordinated program to harvest Carp along Murray River fishways by expanding first within SA, based on the Lock One experience, and then into NSW. Harvesting should focus on priority sites where high numbers of Carp are present and where fishways will allow access to preferred Carp habitat and potential breeding sites.
Take home messages: There is significant potential to harvest Carp at Murray River fishways using the Williams’ Carp Separation Cage but it must be undertaken without any significant impact on native fish migration. A coordinated program with an appropriate level of monitoring is required. The monitoring should include assessments of the impacts of Carp harvesting on upstream Carp populations and recruitment.
Ethical euthanasia of Carp and cost effective disposal remain issues but there are potential solutions. Approval should be sought from relevant Commonwealth agencies for the use of practical destruction measures such as ice slurries and trials using percussive stunning devices should be undertaken. Trials should also be undertaken using commercially available composting bins at sites where commercial fishing is not viable.
Stakeholders and Funding bodies: This research project was funded through the Murray-Darling Basin Authority’s River Murray Assets Division and carried out by consultant Dr Peter Jackson.
Contact: Dr Peter Jackson, Consultant, +61 7 5429 2276+61 7 5429 2276, Email Peter.Jackson@westnet.com.au
Elizabeth MacPhee and Gabriel Wilks
Jindabyne Valve House Spoil Dump was formed between 1964 and 1968 as a depository for spoil material excavated from the Jindabyne-Island Bend and Snowy-Geehi Tunnels. The site sits as a wedge of 300 000m3 of spoil in a valley about 140m above the Snowy River just to the north west of Lake Jindabyne. Water is periodically discharged from the Valve House stilling basin across the site with no functioning water pathway.
The site prior to restoration. Prior to earthworks in 2010, Jindabyne Valve House Spoil Dump contained a quarry basin, an 80m concrete ‘path’ from dumped material over the edge of the spoil, and dumped scrap metal, wire, tanks and concrete slabs. This highly degraded area sat immediately below a public lookout on the edge of Kosciuszko National Park.
Fauna and vegetation surveys were conducted on and in the surrounding forest. A total of 28 bird, 12 mammal, six reptile and one amphibian species were recorded during the survey in the Jindabyne Valve House Rehabilitation Area, and no threatened species. No species were identified that could be adversely affected by proposed works. Weeds such as St Johns Wort (Hypericum perforatum) occurred at the edges of the site and minimal vegetation was found on the majority of the spoil.
Treatments: Earthworks were undertaken on the site in May 2010. This included re-shaping the wedge of spoil into a stable slope with access tracks and benches, constructing a culvert and concrete / rock lined drain for water flow, and preparing the site for revegetation. Approx. 48, 000 m3 of rock was shifted, with the top bench area of 3000m 3 ripped for planting and 600m3 compost placed in piles across the site in a 2 month period. The site was planted with 35,000 native species tube stock in 2010 – 2011, and the entire site covered in rice straw and woodchip. Species planted are listed in Table 1.
Results: Monitoring showed that 18 species had acheived about 38 percent cover of the site after one year, with nil weed cover (Table 2). Observations 3 years after treatment show that about 80% of all seedlings survived. Browsing of seedlings by macropods restricted some plant development.
Lessons learned, Browsing animals (introduced and native) can impact plant growth rates, even on steep sites. On steep sites there is no simple solution to this. However planting densely, using tree guards where possible and providing thatch for seedling protection ameliorated the impact.
Providing key elements such as organic matter, nutrients, protective brush and viable plant material – along with reducing erosive processes – triggered successful revegetation on the site. Covering the ground with a layer of organic matter such as rice straw ameliorated temperature extremes on site, allowing young seedlings to survive and flourish.
Acknowledgements. Thanks are extended to the restoration team at Kosciuszko National Park, including the many contractors who participated. We also thank Nicki Taws and Angela Calliess (Greening Australia Capital Region) who undertook the formal vegetation monitoring.
Table 1: Plant species used in rehabilitation at Jindabyne Valve House Spoil Dump
|Acaena novae zelandae|
|Grasses and Monocotolydon|
Table 2. Vegetation data recorded on a 50m transect approximately 12 months after treatment. (Data from Greening Australia Vegetation Monitoring Former Snowy-Hydro Sites Kosciuszko National Park).
|Native Overstorey % cover||0|
|Native mid storey % cover||0|
|Native grasses % cover||2|
|Native ground shrubs % cover||18|
|Native forbs % cover||2|
|Sum of native ground cover %||22|
|Exotic species % cover||0|
|Litter % cover||80|
|Bare ground % cover||10|
|Rock % cover||10|
|Woody Debris % cover||2|
|Number of native species||15|
|Woody stems <10cm dbh||425|
|Coarse Woody Debris (m)||190|
EMR short summary Snowy Adit
Key Words: Minimal disturbance, bush regeneration, Eucalyptus microcarpa, volunteer, Bush For Life
The Site: Grey Box (Eucalyptus microcarpa) Grassy Woodland is listed as an endangered ecological community under the EPBC Act 1999. This ecological community was once widespread on the drier edge of the temperate grassy eucalypt woodland belt of south-eastern Australia. In South Australia, this community occupies less than 3 percent of the area it once did before European settlement. One of the remaining suburban remnants of this community can be found in Mandilla Reserve, Flagstaff Hill, SA. The reserve is surrounded by suburban houses and remains under threat from weed and pest invasion, lack of recruitment of canopy species plus degradation associated with urban encroachment (pollution runoff, rubbish, excessive stormwater). Since 1996 the Bush or Life program together with the City of Onkaparinga have supported community volunteers to care for and manage the bush regeneration work within the reserve. The objective was to restore the highly degraded Grey Box remnant into a woodland community representing the unique diverse vegetation it once housed.
Works: Two very dedicated community members adopted the site in 1996 and began visiting on average 3 times per week. They used minimal disturbance bushcare techniques to tackle a carpet of bulb weeds such as Sparaxis (Sparaxis bulbifera), Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae), Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) and Cape Tulip (Moraea flaccida) mixed with highly invasive annual and perennial grass species. In the surrounding degraded areas, some strategic planting was also carried out using Grey Box (Eucalyptus microcarpa), Sticky Hop Bush (Dodonaea viscosa) and Sweet Bursaria (Bursaria spinosa) and local sedge seedlings. Four areas were also hand direct seeded with native grasses to encourage ground cover recruitment and discourage weeds. All seed used was collected on site to ensure local provenance was maintained.
Results After thousands of volunteer hours, extensive regeneration of natives occurred on site. The volunteers’ work has transformed the reserve into a flourishing area of lilies, native grasses and understorey shrubs. Today, the vegetation in the reserve is virtually weed free and even native orchids are beginning to return. In addition, the area that the bushland covers has expanded as a result of the planting and direct seeding. Since these works, natural regeneration has also been observed of native sedges including Senecio, Carex, Juncus and native grasses.
Lessons learned: Regular follow up for several years is vital to the success of any primary clearance work whether or not minimal disturbance techniques are used. Facilitated regeneration can be successfully used with bush regeneration providing it is strategic and complementary to and considerate of existing natural regeneration processes. Maintenance of the plantings or hand direct seeding is also vital to minimise competition from weeds and ensure their success.
Acknowledgements: This site is owned by the City of Onkaparinga Council and is managed in partnership with Trees For Life who train and support volunteers through its Bush For Life program. Thanks goes to Geoff and Barbara Moss, the site’s main volunteers.
Contact: Jenna Currie, Bush For Life Regional Coordinator, Trees For Life email@example.com
Key Words: Minimal disturbance, bush regeneration, Eucalyptus fasciculosa, volunteer, Bush For Life.
The Site: In June 1996 Trees For Life (TFL), a community based not-for-profit organisation, established a volunteer bush regeneration site (known as a Bush For Life site) on a 1.4km long, one chain wide roadside remnant on Research Road about 6km south of Strathalbyn, SA. At this stage the road was still being used as a vehicle track. The vegetation was a very diverse Pink Gum (Eucalyptus fasciculosa) Open woodland with occasional mallee eucalypts, a shrub understorey, sedge and herbaceous groundcover and native grasses with many locally rare and vulnerable species including the nationally vulnerable Silver Daisy-bush (Olearia pannosa ssp. pannosa ). The largest weed problem was Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) which blanketed the site in the cooler, wetter months. Other threats to the understorey diversity included broadleaf weeds typical of the dry, agricultural landscapes of the lower Murray Plains. These weeds included Pincushion(Scabiosa atropurpurea), Wild Sage (Salvia verbenaca) and Horehound (Marrubium vulgare ).
Works: Volunteers worked on a section of the 1,400m long, one chain wide road reserve, using minimal disturbance techniques. The regenerators very carefully removed Bridal Creeper, broad leaf weeds and weed grasses; but they had to contend with the continual degradation of the remaining area. It was really only a heavily rutted, two-wheel track suitable for dry weather use only, but was subjected to indiscriminate and illegal use through all seasons, including rubbish dumping, firewood collection and “bush-bashing”.
The Alexandrina Council closed the road to motor vehicles in September 2008 and it has been allowed to recover now for 4 years. After the road closure, discussions between Council and TFL centred on whether to leave the vehicle track to regenerate by itself or to “rip” the track to fill in the ruts and promote germination. As ripping the track was predicted to have have promoted prolific broadleaf and grassy weed establishment, particularly given the close proximity of weedy agricultural land adjacent to the linear reserve, the BFL principle of minimal disturbance prevailed and the track was left to regenerate without other intervention.
Results: Today there is a proliferation of native species germinating on the track, with native regeneration on the track itself far outweighing the weed regeneration.
The ruts have filled with leaf litter and have encouraged the germination of spear grasses Austrostipa sp.) and wallaby grasses(Austrodanthonia sp.). As the volunteers discover new seedlings they protected them with branches; but regeneration has become so significant that this is no longer practical. .
Many Mallee Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca acuminata) and Dryland Tea-tree (Melaleuca lanceolata) seedlings have germinated and are thriving in bare patches. Many other species are also germinating, including: Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha), Hakea Wattle (Acacia hakeoides,) Sweet Bursaria (Bursaria spinosa), eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.), Ruby Saltbush (Enchylaena tomentosa), Climbing Saltbush ( Einadia nutans ssp. nutans), Old Man’s Beard (Clematis microphylla var. microphylla), Australian Bindweed (Convolvulus sp., and New Holland Daisy (Vittadinia sp.). Black-anther Flax-lily (Dianella revoluta, Mallee Blue-flower (Halgania cyanea,), Rosemary Dampiera (Dampiera rosmarinifolia ) and Quandong ( Santalum acuminatum) are spreading from the sides onto the track. Areas where once a vehicle could drive have now been reduced to a narrow walking track between seedlings.
Treatment with Bridal Creeper rust (Puccinia myrsiphylli) began in 2004/2005 with wider and more intense applications applied every year from 2008. In the last couple of years rust has established itself over a large proportion of the site with very little flowering and fruiting detected during 2011. Volunteers carefully treat plants at both ends of the site by ‘tonging’ with glyphosate (i.e. using tongs with sponge tips as herbicide applicators) which has been very successful. Through careful and consistent work, most of the broad-leaved weeds have been virtually removed from site, with only isolated germinations being detected and removed. One other weed – : Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae – is prolific on site; and has yet to be targeted for control.
Rabbits re-entered the site early in 2006 and by mid-2008 had bred up to occupy 15 locations on site. They caused significant damage to the native vegetation until controlled by baiting in March 2010. The increase in native grasses in the areas treated has been significant.
Lessons learned: Four significant events have had the greatest effect on this turnaround: the road closure, the control of rabbits, the establishment of Bridal Creeper rust and most significantly the consistent hard work of the site’s Bush For Life volunteers.
Acknowledgements: This site is owned by the Alexandrina Council and is managed in partnership with Trees For Life who train and support volunteers through its Bush For Life program.
Contact: Sue Bradstreet. Regional Coordinator, Trees For Life firstname.lastname@example.org
Byron Shire Council’s ‘Sustainable Streets’ program aims to foster community-inspired sustainable behaviour change at a neighbourhood level. The program consists of regular neighbourhood gatherings and sustainability education workshops on topics, including: organic gardening; bush-friendly backyards; rainwater harvesting; solar power and energy efficiency; ethical shopping; green cleaning and, cooking with local produce. .
Activities. In each participating neighbourhood, residents get together for sustainability workshops and build bonds in the neighbourhood, whilst raising points to fund their own local sustainability project. Currently seven streets in neighbourhoods across Byron and Tweed Shire Councils have participated in the Sustainable Streets program, including: Brunswick Heads; Mullumbimby; South Golden Beach; Mullum Creek; Murwillumbah; Cabarita Beach; Uki.
Analyses of the street’s consumption of energy, water and ecological footprint (i.e. the number of planets needed if everyone lived that lifestyle) were made prior to the program and calculated again after 6 months. (Results are shown in Table 1.)
Table 1. Decreases in energy, water and eco footprint of residents in participating Sustainable Streets in the Tweed-Byron area.
|Location of Street||Energy||Water||Eco Footprint|
|South Golden Beach||5.0% decrease||43.0% decrease||5.5% decrease|
|Uki||13.0% decrease||23.0% decrease||14.5% decrease|
|Mullumbimby Creek||13.5% decrease||62.0% decrease||21.0% decrease|
|Cabarita||26.0% decrease||23.0% decrease||20.5% decrease|
|Brunswick Heads||12.3% decrease||41.5% decrease||15.3% decrease|
Results to date.
Energy. Participants have changed to Greenpower, with 8 families having installed their own solar power system. Other changes have been changing consumption patterns including turning off standbys, installing low wattage lights, wearing jumpers instead of turning on heaters, manual operation of electric hot water boosters, adjusting pool pumps minimum use or converting to a natural pool and insulative cooking.
Water. Five families have installed water tanks, others use shower timers, less frequent bigger clothes and dish washing loads.
Food and garden. Participants have converted to efficient composting or worm farms or installed poultry. Others meet more regularly for neighbourhood food and plant swaps and and buy more local food from a nearby organic farmer and at the Farmer’s markets.
Fuel emissions. Changes included reducing air travel, downsizing the family to more fuel efficient models, increased carpooling and pushbike use.
Environment. Nine families cleared their land of invasive weeds
Lessons. A major aspect of the project has been the strengthening of social connections in the neighbourhood, with many participants drawn into the program to ‘get to know their neighbours’. In an increasingly isolated society, the enhancement of social capital has been one of the most significant achievements of the program and platform to develop local sustainability. It is hoped that additional streets will be launched in the future.
Contact Byron Shire Council’s Sustainability Officer on 6626 7305. Also see http://www.byron.nsw.gov.au/sustainable-streets-program to access the ‘Sustainable Streets doco’ which can be borrowed from local libraries.