Category Archives: Wetland

A novel multispecies approach for assessing threatened swamp communities

Hannah McPherson and Maurizio Rossetto,

Key words:   Swamp conservation, chloroplast DNA, genetic diversity, landscape connectivity

Introduction. Little is known about the historical or present-day connectivity of Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) in the Sydney Basin (NSW). Recent technological advances have enabled exploration of genetic complexity at both species and community levels.  By focusing on multiple plant species and populations, and investigating intraspecific gene-flow across multiple swamps, we can begin to make generalisations about how species and communities respond to change, thereby providing a solid scientific basis from which appropriate conservation and restoration strategies can be developed.

The study area comprised eight swamps distributed across four sites along an altitudinal gradient: Newnes (1200m); Leura (900m); Budderoo (600m); and Woronora (400m), see figure 1.

Map of the Sydney Basin region showing four study sites and eight swamps. Greyscale shows altitude gradient.

Map of the Sydney Basin region showing four study sites and eight swamps. Greyscale shows altitude gradient.

The aims were:

  • To assess the relative genomic diversity among target species representing a range of life-history traits. This was achieved by sequencing chloroplast DNA and detecting variants in pooled samples from 25 species commonly occurring in swamps.
  • To explore geographic patterns of diversity among swamps and across multiple species by designing targeted genomic markers and screening variants among populations within and between sites (for ten species occurring in up to 8 swamps).
  • To develop a set of simple, effective and standardised tools for assessing diversity, connectivity and resilience of swamps to threats (from mining to climate change).
Fig 2. Broad Swamp, Newnes Plateau (Maurizio Rossetto)

Fig 2. Broad Swamp, Newnes Plateau (Maurizio Rossetto)

Our study comprises three main components:

1. Species-level assessment of genetic variation of swamp species

We have taken advantage of new available methods and technologies (McPherson et al. 2013 and The Organelle Assembler at http://pythonhosted.org/ORG.asm/) to sequence and assemble full chloroplast genomes of 20 plant species from swamps in the Sydney Basin and detect within and between-population variation. This enabled a rapid assessment of diversity among representatives of 12 families and a broad range of life-history traits – e.g. table 1. We are currently finalising our bioinformatic sampling of the data to ensure even coverage of chloroplast data across the species, however these preliminary data show that relative estimates are not a product of different amounts of chloroplast data retrieved (e.g. for the seven species with sequence length greater than 100,000 base pairs variation ranges from absent to high).

2. Swamp-level assessment of variation and connectivity using three target species – Baeckea linifolia (high diversity), Lepidosperma limicola (low diversity) and Boronia deanei subsp. deanei (restricted and threatened species).

From the initial species-level study we selected three very different species for detailed population-level studies. We designed markers to screen for variation within and among sites and explore landscape-level connectivity. We identified the Woronora Plateau as a possible refugium and we have uncovered interesting patterns of gene-flow on the Newnes Plateau. Two species, Lepidosperma limicola and Baeckea linifolia seem able to disperse over long distances while Boronia deanei subsp. deanei showed unexpected high levels of diversity despite very limited seed-mediated gene-flow between populations. Its current conservation status was supported by our findings. A unique pattern was found for each species, highlighting the need for a multispecies approach for understanding dynamics of this system in order to make informed decisions about, and plans for, conservation management.

3. Multi-species approach to assessing swamp community population dynamics

Since the population study approach proved successful we expanded our study to include population studies for a further ten species. This required development of new Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approaches applicable to a wide range of study systems. This kind of approach will allow us to make informed generalisations about swamp communities for conservation management planning.

Fig 3. Paddy’s Swamp, Newnes Plateau (Anthea Brescianini)

Fig 3. Paddy’s Swamp, Newnes Plateau (Anthea Brescianini)

Table 1. Preliminary results showing relative chloroplast variation among 25 swamp species. Sequence length is in base pairs (bp) and relative level of variation was calculated as sequence length divided by number of variants to obtain an estimate of number of SNPs per base pair.  Relative variation was then categorised as: High (one SNP every <1,000 bp); Moderate (one SNP every 1,000 – <5,000 bp); Low (one SNP every 5,000 – <10,000 bp); Very low (one SNP every >10,000 bp); or absent (no SNPs).

table

Fig 4. Banksia ericifolia (Maurizio Rossetto)

Fig 4. Banksia ericifolia (Maurizio Rossetto)

Results to date. We have assembled partial chloroplast genomes of 20 plant species from THPSS in the Sydney Basin and categorised relative measurements of diversity. Preliminary data from the three target species highlighted the need for multispecies studies and we are now finalizing our results from an expanded study (including 13 species) in order to better understand connectivity and resilience of THPSS and provide data critical for more informed conservation planning. We have produced unique, simple methods for assessing genetic diversity and understanding dynamics at both the species and site levels.

Lessons learned and future directions. We found that individual species have unique patterns of genetic variation that do not necessarily correspond with phylogeny or functional traits and thereby highlight the benefit of multispecies studies. We have developed a unique, simple method for screening for genetic variation across whole assemblages which can be applied to many study systems. Since our data capture and analysis methods are standardised it will be possible in the future to scale this work up to include more species and/or more geographic areas and analyse the datasets together to address increasingly complex research questions about the resilience of swamps in a changing landscape.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies. The following people have contributed to many aspects of this research, including design, fieldwork and data generation and analysis: Doug Benson and Joel Cohen (Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust), Anthea Brescianini and Glenda Wardle (University of Sydney), David Keith (Office of Environment and Heritage).

This research was funded through the Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone Research Program (THPSS Research Program). This Program was funded through an enforceable undertaking as per section 486A of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 between the Minister for the Environment, Springvale Coal Pty Ltd and Centennial Angus Place Pty Ltd. Further information on the enforceable undertaking and the terms of the THPSS Research Program can be found at www.environment.gov.au/news/2011/10/21/centennial-coal-fund-145-million-research-program.

Contact. Hannah McPherson, Biodiversity Research Officer, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney 2000; Tel: +61292318181 Email: hannah.mcpherson@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

Hydrology of Woronora Plateau Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone

William C Glamore and Duncan S Rayner

Key words: water balance, groundwater, soil, subsidence, under mining

Introduction. The Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) ecological community consists of both temporary and permanent swamps developed in peat overlying Triassic Sandstone formations at high elevations, generally between 400 and 1200 m above sea level on the south-east coast of Australia. THPSS are listed as an endangered ecological community (EEC), threatened by habitat destruction and modification of groundwater and hydrology. The primary impact of longwall mining is to swamp hydrology, influencing long-term surface and groundwater regimes. This, in turn, can have a devastating impact on swamp ecology including many important habitats for protected flora and fauna. While the ecological value of THPSS is well understood, our current understanding of the hydrology of THPSS is limited. THPSS have been found to be dependent on groundwater, and subsequently the impact of modifying groundwater interactions can be significant. Recent research has concluded that a thorough understanding of the impact of longwall mining on the surface waterways and groundwater system is necessary before any remediation options to reduce loss of water into subsurface routes and minimise impact on water quality are considered.

Aims. To address this major knowledge gap, research into the fundamental hydrology of THPSS was undertaken. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the role of surface water and groundwater inputs and losses in maintaining swamp hydrology, providing a base level foundation from which the impacts of long-wall mining on ecology can be determined and guide future remediation efforts. To undertake on-ground research, multiple locations where data collection in peat swamps was being undertaken were utilised to form a foundation from which to expand swamp investigations and target site data gaps. Two swamps were selected for further detailed investigations, both located on the Woronora Plateau, approximately 80km south of Sydney, Australia. One site was within the Woronora Nature Reserve, where vegetation has been monitored regularly for 30+ years and basic climate monitoring for the past 5 years, and another swamp within the Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Area where climate monitoring, groundwater levels and swamp discharge has been monitored for the previous 5 years.  Extensive on-ground investigations were undertaken (and continue to be monitored) at these sites, providing fundamental scientific information for further assessment.

Methods. A series of groundbreaking on-ground investigations were undertaken to characterize the swamp hydrogeology and surface hydrology.  Detailed surveys of peat depth were initially undertaken using a push rod and RTK-GPS to determine digital elevation models (DEM) of surface topography and subsurface sandstone. Depth to underlying sandstone was found to be variable throughout the swamps (Figure 1). This survey guided the location and density of soil profiles and piezometer installations to characterize sediment characteristics, monitor water level fluctuations and assess water and soil chemistry.  A total of 17 piezometers were installed to bed rock, including logging soil stratigraphy and soil grab samples. Slotted 50mm diameter PVC was installed with a water level logger deployed near the bedrock. Soil samples were analysed for pH, EC, moisture, organic matter and a suite of analytes via ion chromatography. Hydraulic conductivity of the upper peat layer was also tested in-situ. Collected field data and site characterization surveys were combined to construct a three-dimensional numerical hydrological groundwater model to assist in determining the swamp water balance, hydrodynamics and to refine future sampling/analysis.

Figure 1: Example swamp depth survey and piezometer locations with conceptual groundwater flow paths

Figure 1: Example swamp depth survey and piezometer locations with conceptual groundwater flow paths

Findings. Findings include fundamental swamp hydrogeolgical characteristics, water balance summaries and analysis of degrees of freedom.  Swamp sediments were observed to vary both within swamps and between swamps. Sediment depths were found to range between 0.5 m to 2.6 m deep, with typical peat depths ranging between 30 cm – 100 cm of a dense organic layer in various stages of decomposition. The organic layer is underlain by grey sandy clay with clay content decreasing with depth (Figure 2). Sand and gravel was observed in the 10 cm to 30 cm range above bedrock.  Soil acidity was observed to be relatively uniform over depth with an average pH 5.7, however electrical conductivity and chloride decreased with depth; suggesting evapo-concentration of salts within the upper layers of the swamp. Soil moisture by weight and organic content were measured to decrease with depth, indicating decreasing porosity. Specific yield of swamp surface soils (0 m to 0.2 m) ranged between 15-20%, with deeper sediments (0.2 m to 0.4 m) approximately 10% greater.

Analysis of the water levels across the swamps, in conjunction with preliminary water balance modelling, indicates that despite the current data collection program, significant degrees of freedom remain unaccounted. Key factors such as transpiration, runoff, infiltration, interflow and groundwater losses are currently unknown and present seven sources of uncertainty within the water balance model. To reduce the uncertainty and close the water balance of peat swamps, further long term monitoring and site specific measurements are required. With the addition of soil core samples, soil hydraulic conductivity, long term water level data and further swamp geometry data, eight out of a total of nine water balance quantities will be known for the swamp, enabling increased reliability to assess the impacts of climate change, changes in land use, and undermining on long-term swamp ecology.  The findings from this study provide fundamental information that forms the basis for ongoing investigations critical for understanding peat swamp hydrology.

Figure 2: Typical swamp lithology

Figure 2: Typical swamp lithology

Acknowledgements. This research was funded through the Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone Research Program (THPSS Research Program). This Program was funded through an enforceable undertaking as per section 486A of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 between the Minister for the Environment, Springvale Coal Pty Ltd and Centennial Angus Place Pty Ltd.  Further information on the enforceable undertaking and the terms of the THPSS Research Program can be found at www.environment.gov.au/news/2011/10/21/centennial-coal-fund-145-million-research-program.

Contact. William C Glamore and Duncan S Rayner, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia (110 King St, Manly Vale, NSW 2093, Australia, Tel: +61/ 2 8071 9868. Email: w.glamore@wrl.unsw.edu.au ).

Conservation of an endangered swamp lizard

Key words:         Eulamprus leuraensis, fire impacts, disturbance ecology, habitat requirements, Scincidae

The Blue Mountains Water Skink is known from less than 60 isolated swamps in the Blue Mountains and Newnes Plateau of southeastern Australia (Fig 1). Understanding the species’ ecology, notably its vulnerability to threatening processes such as fire and hydrological disturbance, is essential if we are to retain viable populations of this endangered reptile.

Fig 1. Swamps containing Eulamprus leuraensis used in our baseline surveys (from Gorissen et al., 2015)

Fig 1. Swamps containing Eulamprus leuraensis used in our baseline surveys (from Gorissen et al., 2015)

Design: We surveyed swamps across the species’ known range to identify critical habitat requirements, and to examine responses both of habitat features (vegetation) and lizard populations to fire regimes and other anthropogenic disturbances. Our analyses of fire impacts included both detailed studies post-fire, and GIS-based analyses of correlations between lizard abundance and fire history.

Results to date: Blue Mountains Water Skinks appear to persist wherever suitable swamp habitat is maintained, although lizard numbers decline after frequent fires, hydrological disturbance or urbanization. However, the lizards (especially, adults) rarely venture out from the core swamp habitat into the surrounding woodland matrix. The “fast” life-history of this species (rapid growth, early maturation, high reproductive output) enables populations to recover from local disturbances, but very low vagility means that re-colonisation of a swamp after extirpation of a population is likely to be very slow (if it occurs at all).

Fig 2. Blue Mountains Water Skink within its swamp habitat (Photo: S. Dubey)

Fig 2. Blue Mountains Water Skink within its swamp habitat (Photo: S. Dubey)

Fig 3. Sarsha Gorissen checks a trap for lizards in a Newnes Plateau swamp (Photo: N. Belmer)

Fig 3. Sarsha Gorissen checks a trap for lizards in a Newnes Plateau swamp (Photo: N. Belmer)

Lessons learned and future directions: The suitability of a montane swamp for Blue Mountains Water Skinks can be readily assessed from soil-moisture levels and vegetation characteristics. Effective conservation of this endangered reptile species should focus on conserving habitat quality in swamps, rather than targeting the lizards themselves. If healthy swamps can be maintained, the lizards are unlikely to face extinction. Given high levels of genetic divergence among lizard populations (even from adjacent swamps), we need to maintain as many swamps as possible.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies: This research was funded through the Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone Research Program (THPSS Research Program). This Program was funded through an enforceable undertaking as per section 486A of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 between the Minister for the Environment, Springvale Coal Pty Ltd and Centennial Angus Place Pty Ltd.  Further information on the enforceable undertaking and the terms of the THPSS Research Program can be found at www.environment.gov.au/news/2011/10/21/centennial-coal-fund-145-million-research-program.

Contact information: Prof Richard Shine, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Heydon-Laurence Building A08, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia. Phone: (61) 2-9351-3772; Email: rick.shine@sydney.edu.au

Landscape-scale terrestrial revegetation around the Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth, South Australia

Hafiz Stewart, Ross Meffin, Sacha Jellinek

Key words. Restoration, prioritisation, woodland, ecosystems

Introduction. Located in South Australia at the terminus of the Murray-Darling River, the Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth (CLLMM) region has immense ecological, economic and cultural importance. The landscape varies from the low hills of Mount Lofty Ranges in the northwest, through the low valleys and plains surrounding Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert, to the plains and dunes of the Coorong in the southeast (Fig 1). These landforms had a large influence on the composition of pre-European vegetation communities in the region, with the Mount Lofty Ranges dominated by eucalypt forests and woodlands, the lakes surrounded by a mixture of mallee, temperate shrublands and wetland vegetation, and the Coorong supporting coastal and wetland vegetation communities.

The region has been extensively cleared since European settlement and the introduction of intensive agriculture (cropping and grazing), so that now only a fraction of the original native vegetation remains. This has resulted in a substantial decline in biodiversity and recognition of the area as a critically endangered eco-region. These impacts have been compounded by water extraction upstream and anthropogenic changes to hydrological regimes. The recent drought further exacerbated these environmental problems and severely affected the region’s people and economy.

Fig. 1. The Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth region showing terrestrial and aquatic plantings.

Figure 1. The Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth region showing terrestrial and aquatic plantings.

Broad aim and any specific objectives. In response to drought and other issues affecting the region the Australian and South Australian governments funded the landscape-scale CLLMM Recovery Project (2011 – 2016). This project aims to help restore the ecological character of the site and build resilience in the region’s ecosystems and communities. As a part of this, the CLLMM Vegetation Program aimed to strategically restore native vegetation to buffer and increase the connectivity of existing remnants.

Works undertaken. Three key tools were utilised to achieve these goals. First, an integrated Landscape Assessment was used to identify priority plant communities for restoration in the region. To do this, we classified vegetation types occurring in the CLLMM landscape, then identified suites of bird species associated with each vegetation type. The status and trends of each of these bird species were then used as indicators to determine the conservation priority of each vegetation type. Second, a framework was developed to identify the most appropriate vegetation types to reconstruct at a given site, depending on characteristics such as soil type and landform. This was based on the composition and structure of remnant communities and their associated environmental settings. Finally, a Marxan analysis was conducted across the region to prioritise sites for restoration works based on the aims of the program, with an aspirational target of restoring 30% of each priority vegetation type. Following an expression of interest process that made use of existing networks in the local community and the traditional owners of the CLLMM and surrounding area, the Ngarrindjeri, prioritised sites were then selected from those made available by landholders.

For each site, we developed a plan specifying the site preparation required, and species and densities to be planted. Native plants were sourced from local nurseries, ensuring that provenance and appropriate collection guidelines were followed. Tubestock was used to provide an opportunity for social benefits, including the development of community run nurseries, and due to their higher survival rates. Planting was carried out by regional contractors engaged by the CLLMM Recovery Project Vegetation Program, along with the Goolwa to Wellington Local Action Planning association and the Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority. During this program wetland restoration was also undertaken through the planting of a native sedge species, the River Club Rush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani), which assisted in stabilising shorelines and creating habitat for aquatic plant communities.

Results to date. By the end of the program around 5 million native plants will have been planted at 148 sites on private and public land covering more than 1,700 hectares (Fig. 1). In total 202 species of plants have currently been planted, comprising 11% overstorey, 38% midstorey and 51% understorey species. Initial results indicate that around 66% of plants survive the first summer, at which point they are well established. Woodland and mallee bird species are starting to use these revegetated areas. When compared to remnant areas of the same vegetation type, both native plant species richness and bird diversity are lower in restored habitats. However, while the bird communities in restored habitats are dominated by generalist species, specialist species such as endangered Mount Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-Wrens have been recorded in revegetated areas, providing early signs that planted areas are benefiting rarer species. The restored communities are still very young, and over time we expect these areas will start to structurally resemble remnant habitats.

Lessons learned and future directions. Resourcing of research alongside program delivery allowed us to implement a sound prioritisation process and a systematic, strategic, and effective approach to the restoration of the landscape. The capacity to collect good vegetation, soil and bird occurrence data was crucial to this. Successful delivery also required funding for site preparation and follow-up, a well-developed network of native plant nurseries, engaged community and indigenous groups, and good relationships with local landholders.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies. The CLLMM Vegetation Program is a landscape scale habitat restoration project, jointly funded by the Australian and South Australian governments under the Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth Recovery Project. We would like to thank the Goolwa to Wellington Local Action Planning Association, the Milang and Districts Community Association and the Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority for their assistance in undertaking this revegetation. DEWNR’s Science, Monitoring and Knowledge branch undertook the initial ecosystem analysis.

Contact information.  Hafiz Stewart, Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, South Australia. Hafiz.stewart@sa.gov.au

The spatial distribution and physical characteristics of Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS)

Key words: wetlands, upland swamp, geomorphology, mapping, Sydney Basin

Effective conservation and management of natural resources requires that we have an understanding of the spatial distribution and physical characteristics of the systems of concern. The results of the THPSS mapping project summarised here provide an essential physical (geomorphological) template atop which a range of other biophysical information on swamp structure, function and condition can be collated and interpreted.

Design. Using a 25 m Digital Elevation Modal (DEM) coupled with orthorectified aerial photography, the THPSS of the Sydney Basin were mapped in ArcGIS. Only valley-bottom swamps were mapped. Hanging swamps or hillslope drapes were excluded. In ArcGIS, the physical attributes of the swamps were attributed and measured. This included swamp area, elevation above sea level, swamp slope, catchment area, swamp and catchment elongation ratio, swamp length and distance to coast.

Figure 1: Regions in which THPSS occur in the Sydney Basin

Figure 1: Regions in which THPSS occur in the Sydney Basin

Results. Five regions of THPSS were mapped (Figure 1); Newnes (Figure 2), Blue Mountains (Figure 3), Budderoo (Figure 4), Woronora (Figure 5) and Gosford (Figure 6). Across these regions there is a total of 3208 individual THPSS. The combined area of these swamps is 101 km2 (10,100 ha) and the combined catchment areas that contain them cover 789 km2. They occur at a median distance of 57 km from the coast, but this is highly varied, ranging from 0.4 – 96 km.

The swamps occur in areas with an average annual rainfall of 1505 mm/year and average annual temperature is 15oC. They occur at a wide range of elevations. Those closer to the coast occur on elevations as low as 160 m ASL, and those further from the coast on plateau country can occur at elevations up to 1172 m ASL. The bulk of these systems occur at median elevations of 634 m ASL. The swamps are elongate in shape, having a median elongation ratio of 0.46. This makes the majority of these systems relatively long (median length is 216 m) and narrow. They occur in relatively elongate catchments with median elongation ratios of 0.61 and median catchment lengths of 488 m. Almost all these valleys terminate at their downstream ends at a valley constriction or bedrock step, making the valleys ‘funnel-shaped’.

Catchment areas draining into the swamps are, on average, 0.25 km2. This means these systems tend to occur in the very headwaters of most catchments in first or second order drainage lines. Each swamp is, on average, 31,537 m2 in area (3.1 ha). These swamps form on deceptively steep slopes. Median minimum swamp slope is 6.2%. The funnel-shaped valleys produce effective constrictions behind which alluvial materials and peat can accumulate, resulting in valley fills forming on relatively steep slopes.

 Stakeholders and Funding bodies. This research was funded through the Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone Research Program (THPSS Research Program). This Program was funded through an enforceable undertaking as per section 486A of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 between the Minister for the Environment, Springvale Coal Pty Ltd and Centennial Angus Place Pty Ltd.  Further information on the enforceable undertaking and the terms of the THPSS Research Program can be found at www.environment.gov.au/news/2011/10/21/centennial-coal-fund-145-million-research-program. This project was also partly funded by an ARC Linkage Grant (LP130100120) awarded to A/Prof. Kirstie Fryirs and A/Prof. Grant Hose at Macquarie University. We thank Will Farebrother for working on this project. We thank the NSW Land and Property Information for the orthorectified aerial photographs that are used under a research-only license agreement.

Contact information. A/Prof. Kirstie Fryirs, Department of Environmental Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109; +61298508367; kirstie.fryirs@mq.edu.au  A/Prof. Grant Hose, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109; +61298508367; grant.hose@mq.edu.au

Figure 2: THPSS of the Newnes region

Figure 2: THPSS of the Newnes region

Figure 3: THPSS of the Blue Mountains region

Figure 3: THPSS of the Blue Mountains region

Figure 4: THPSS of the Budderoo region

Figure 4: THPSS of the Budderoo region

Figure 5: THPSS of the Woronora region

Figure 5: THPSS of the Woronora region

Fig 6 - Gosford swamps map

Figure 6: THPSS of the Gosford region

Restoring wetland communities in the Coorong and Lower Lakes, South Australia

[Summary will be reinstated soon.]

Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia

Mark Bachmann

Key words: wetland restoration, Ramsar, rising springs, drainage, hydrology

Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park is situated 30 km south east of Mt Gambier in South Australia. For 15-20 years after the park was proclaimed in 1969, there was considerable local interest in trying to address previous changes that had been made to the hydrology of the wetland system.

Although it was protected, reserved and supporting a diverse suite of habitats and range of resident threatened species, Piccaninnnie Ponds was far from intact from a hydrological perspective. Prior to European settlement, water that discharged from the karst, rising-spring wetlands in the system flowed eastward across the State border into the Glenelg River Estuary, in far South West Victoria.

This is how the system remained until 1906, when the first of several attempts to drain the wetlands of Piccaninnie Ponds directly to the sea occurred. What ensued was a turbulent 9 year period during which the fishermen successfully lobbied to have the creek re-directed to the Glenelg River in 1915; a step which was ultimately unpopular with affected landholders and resulted in an alternative flow path again being cut to the sea two years later in 1917. Subsequent ad hoc drainage and development of portions of the wetland system continued and by the time the Piccaninnie Ponds Conservatioon Park was proclaimed in 1969, a new main artificial outlet drained the ponds directly to the sea.

The first attempts at advocacy to restore environmental flows to the Glenelg River in the 1970s and 80s to counter this long-term drying trend in the Park were unsuccessful, until the concept was revisited and a series of steps undertaken, starting in 2001, to achieve hydrological restoration. These steps culminated in the following actions.

 Fig. 1 – Stage 1 weir and fishway under construction in 2006.

Fig. 1,  Stage 1 weir and fishway under construction in 2006.

Actions taken to correct hydrology

  1. 2006 – Stage 1 weir and fishway constructed at Piccaninnie Ponds (Figure 1) regulated outflows on the artificial outlet. This had the effect of increasing inundation in a small area immediately upstream of the structure, under the direct influence of the weir pool created by the new structure, as shown in Fig 2.
  2. 2013 – The stage 2 weir and fishway upgrade (Fig 3) resulted in the structure height being lifted to increase future management flexibility, including providing the future ability to completely block outflows, should the option of re-instating the original flow path one day become a reality.

The stage 2 upgrade was completed at the same time as providing a new flow path to physically reconnect the isolated eastern and western basins at Piccaninnie Ponds. These wetlands had been separated for several decades by a combination of lower water levels, sand drift and the impact of the Piccaninnie Ponds Road. An aerial photographic view of the new flow path is shown in Fig 4.

These works within the original Conservation Park, have occurred in in a complementary way with those that have occurred in the neighbouring, newly reserved area at Pick Swamp, each contributing to the wider vision for restoration of this wetland complex.

Fig. 2. Drained condition of habitat in 2006

Fig. 2a. Drained condition of habitat upstream of the Stage 1 weir (prior to construction  in 2006).

Fig. 3. The upstream inundation and habitat change caused by the stage 1 weir, 2012.

Fig. 2b. The upstream inundation and habitat change caused by the stage 1 weir, 2012.

Results to date.

  • Increase in quality and area of available habitat for native freshwater fish, including the nationally threatened Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiellla pusilla)
  • Protection of hydrological processes that support a wide range of other threatened species, from a number of taxonomic groups
  • A positive trajectory of change in the distribution of wetland habitats in the vicinity of the works (increased aquatic habitat and reversal of a drying trend that was causing terrestrialisation of vegetation communities)
  • Re-establishment of connectivity between the western and eastern wetlands in the Park for the first time in several decades
Figure 4 – The lifted and redesigned stage 2 weir and fishway on the main artificial outlet at Piccaninnie Ponds – upon completion in 2013.

Fig. 3. The lifted and redesigned stage 2 weir and fishway on the main artificial outlet at Piccaninnie Ponds – upon completion in 2013.

Fig 5a. Piccaninnie

Fig. 4a. Before works – in January 2003

Figure 5 – TOP – Before works image: January 2003. BOTTOM – Post-construction/restoration image: January 2014.

Fig, 4b. After construction/restoration – in January 2014.

Future directions. The works and outcomes described here were delivered by staff working for the South Australian Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (DEWNR)

  • Ongoing management of the works and associated ecological monitoring in Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park is managed by DEWNR
  • Nature Glenelg Trust staff continue to provide specialist ecological advice and monitoring for the site when required by the site manager, DEWNR

Acknowledgements. The outcomes of the restoration project described can be attributed to a wide range of people who, in addition to the author (see current contact details below), worked at the South Australian Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources during the period described. DEWNR project ecologists overseeing the works described here include Ben Taylor (stage 1 weir) and Steve Clarke (stage 2 weir and associated works).

The project was generously funded and supported by a range of different grants and programs administered by the South Australian Government, Australian Government and the South East Natural Resources Management Board.

Contact. Mark Bachmann. Nature Glenelg Trust, PO Box 2177, Mt Gambier, SA 5290 Australia; Tel +61 (0)8 8797 8181; Mob+61 (0) 421 97 8181; Email: mark.bachmann@natureglenelg.org.au Web| www.natureglenelg.org.au

See also:

Bradys Swamp EMR short summary

Long Swamp EMR short summary

Penrhyn Estuary Habitat Enhancement Plan: Habitat Rehabilitation for Migratory Shorebirds in Botany Bay, NSW

Peggy O’Donnell

Keywords: estuarine, restoration, saltmarsh, seagrass, roosting habitat, feeding habitat

Introduction: The Penrhyn Estuary Habitat Enhancement Plan (PEHEP) is an ambitious rehabilitation project undertaken to compensate for habitat loss due to the expansion of Port Botany. Development in Botany Bay, NSW, has caused substantial biophysical changes since the 1940s. Shorebird habitat has decreased due to airport development and expansion and Foreshore Beach is greatly reduced. Penrhyn Estuary is the only remaining significant shorebird roosting and feeding habitat along the northern shoreline but has legacy pollution. The PEHEP was prepared as part of development approval and implemented from 2012 to 2017.

Figure 1: Penrhyn Estuary 2008, before port expansion.

Figure 1: Penrhyn Estuary 2008, before port expansion.

Figure 2: Penrhyn Estuary 2015, four years after port expansion works.

Figure 2: Penrhyn Estuary 2015, four years after port expansion works.

Broad aims and works: The PEHEP aims to rehabilitate the estuary by expanding roosting and feeding grounds for migratory shorebirds and thereby increase their populations in line with Australia’s international responsibilities for shorebird conservation. Key works included levelling of sand dunes to create saltmarsh habitat and expansion of existing intertidal sand flats by filling deeper parts of the estuary with dune sand. A flushing channel was constructed to ensure adequate tidal exchange and to provide habitat suitable for seagrass beds. Protected seagrass, Strapweed (Posidonia australis) was transplanted prior to works and remaining Eelgrass (Zostera capricorni) and Paddleweed (Halophila ovalis) were protected from damage during construction using silt curtains. Local saltmarsh species planted were optimal for use as roosting habitat and extensive weed removal and maintenance was undertaken. Sound barriers, lighting and fencing around the estuary and port structure were designed to favour shorebirds and deter predators.

Monitoring programs compared baseline and post-rehabilitation conditions to assess rehabilitation efficacy. Surveys were done within the estuary and at appropriate reference locations within a BACI experimental design framework. Indicators included: abundance of key shorebird species, benthic infaunal communities, planted and transplanted saltmarsh, remnant and transplanted seagrasses off Foreshore Beach, and water quality.

Results to date:

Water Quality. Four years after habitat enhancement, physiochemical properties (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, total suspended solids, key nutrients) and a productivity indicator (chlorophyll a) were not significantly different from pre-construction or reference values. The configuration of the flushing channel simulated modelled estuary flushing times No algal blooms have been identified to date, suggesting the absence of eutrophic conditions within the now shallower estuary.

Saltmarsh habitat. After planting propagules the total area of saltmarsh habitat in Penrhyn Estuary exceeds 40,000 m2, a 76% increase post port construction and habitat creation (see Sainty 2016 and Dalby-Ball & Olsen 2016 for details of saltmarsh design and planting methodology). Following the works, saltmarsh species diversity, abundance and condition all improved.

The newly-planted saltmarsh vegetation appeared healthy showing continued growth with variability mainly at the margins of planted beds. The main roosting habitat species Salt Couch (Sporobolus virginicus) increased in all treatments, while Seablight (Suaeda australis) decreased slightly consistent with its removal in strategic locations to maintain plant height favourable for shorebird roosting habitat. The ecological function of planted saltmarsh areas was similar to that at reference locations (including other constructed saltmarsh habitats) and a trend of increasing biodiversity was observed throughout the three post-rehabilitation surveys. Some habitats treatments have not responded as well, including those transplanted prior to enhancement works and areas that were cleared of mangroves and weeds. Overall, the majority of ecological targets set with respect to the saltmarsh vegetation within Penrhyn Estuary were met.

Benthic intertidal habitat. Unvegetated intertidal feeding habitat for migratory shorebirds increased by 307% as a result of filling deeper parts of the estuary with dune sand. To enhance invertebrate abundance and diversity, dune sand was augmented with seagrass wrack and river mud as it was profiled in the estuary. Earthworks were staged such that tidal exchange with Botany Bay was altered and/or restricted but never eliminated during the two year construction period.

Criteria for the success of habitat creation were derived from comparison to target values based on pre-enhancement surveys and reference locations. Physical indicators were median grain size and percentage of fine sediments (% clay and silt fractions). Biological indicators were invertebrate abundance and biomass.

After habitat enhancement targets for invertebrate biomass were exceeded, but were not significantly different to those at reference locations. Invertebrate abundance reached only 61% of the target value and decreases resembled those in reference locations. Median grain size and percentage fines in newly created sand habitats were similar to pre-enhancement levels.

The taxonomic composition of benthic assemblages shifted post enhancement. Polychaete worms were characteristic of the assemblage before enhancement while gastropods and bivalve molluscs drove assemblage patterns after enhancement. Polychaetes declined from 76% of all invertebrates before enhancement to 47% after, while molluscs increased from 16% before to 49% after.

Seagrass habitat. Prior to construction, seagrasses off Foreshore Beach had undergone a significant natural decline. Strapweed patches within the footprint of the new boat ramp were transplanted to southern Botany Bay and are now indistinguishable from local plants. Condition of remaining seagrass patches off Foreshore Beach was monitored as was recolonization in the created flushing channel and lower reaches of the estuary.

Three post–construction monitoring surveys have documented a narrow, large bed of Paddleweed containing small patches of Eelgrass and Strapweed that extends off Foreshore Beach in 2-3 m water depth. Small isolated patches of Eelgrass and Strapweed persist at Foreshore Beach. Post-construction conditions are suitable for their survival and larger seagrass beds may be able to re-establish given normal processes of succession. Although numerous patches of the colonising Paddleweed and Eelgrass have been recorded in the flushing channel and in the inner estuary, typically these have not persisted. Turbidity may be limiting light penetration to the deeper parts of the flushing channel and offshore movement of sediments may be smothering seagrasses in the shallower areas of the flushing channel before they can fully establish.

Shorebird populations. Six key species of shorebirds were selected to indicate the success of the rehabilitation project: Bar-tailed Godwit (Lamosa lapponica), Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), Double-banded Plover (Charadrius bicinctus), Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea), Red Knot (Calidris canutus) and Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva). Abundance, diversity, health and habitat usage were monitored for these species and compared to target numbers derived from pre-construction data in 2006, as well as counts at reference sites. The frequency and sources of disturbance and observations on predation were recorded in peak and off-peak seasons.

The population of Pacific Golden Plover appears to be responding positively to the works, with the target exceeded in five consecutive seasons. Mean numbers of Double-banded Plover have increased at Penrhyn Estuary throughout both tidal phases, though is yet to meet its target peak count. Bar-tailed Godwit and Red-necked Stint have declined in this period, and there were no sightings of Red Knot or Curlew Sandpiper in the 2015 peak season surveys.

Disturbances to shorebirds in Penrhyn Estuary have been reduced with the completion of the sound barrier around the port side perimeter and exclusion of the public. Predation was high in the peak 2014 season, emphasising the need to control foxes and cats.

Monitoring reports for the PEHEP are available at:

http://www.sydneyports.com.au/sustainability/penrhyn_estuary_rehabilitation/monitoring_and_reporting2

Lessons learned and future directions:

  • Achievement of the desired profile for the site based on modelling and watering of saltmarsh plants in the initial stages likely set the stage for the success in establishing the large tracts of saltmarsh habitat. The initial removal and subsequent maintenance of a mangrove-free estuary, including a floating trash boom is supporting regular weed removal to improve the chances of long-term sustainability.
  • The relatively poorer response of transplanted saltmarsh areas, and those weeded but otherwise undisturbed suggests that for large habitat creation projects, propagating and planting local saltmarsh species is an efficient, appropriate approach the showed good results in the short term.
  • Earth moving works were staged such that the tidal exchange within the inner estuary was never completely blocked. This is likely to be a factor in the rapid reestablishment of benthic invertebrates, whose pattern of succession and composition differs from those reported for similar projects. Together with the improvement of dune sand by the addition of seagrass wrack and river mud, the fundamentals for a sustainable feeding habitat for shorebirds have been laid.
  • Tidal erosion removed a small portion of saltmarsh habitat along the inner estuary margin which was reshaped and repaired without further habitat damage or disturbance to roosting birds. The lesson: despite careful planning, erosive forces can alter habitats unpredictably as created habitats mature, and timely adaptive management is required to rectify damage and reduce further loss.
  • Shorebird populations and invertebrate abundance in the first two years of post-construction monitoring showed a generally positive correlation and similar trajectories of, suggesting that created intertidal habitat provided sufficient prey items to support increased shorebird populations in the longer term, despite considerable variability and failure of both populations to meet some target indicators. The abundance, biomass and community composition of benthic invertebrates in the most recent sampling (November 2014) fell within the range of variation seen in the five previous sampling events, however overall shorebird abundance fell to a minimum. Shorebird observations for the three months up to March 2015 showed an increasing trend, however targets for all but one species (Pacific Golden Plover) have not been achieved.

Comparisons to data from reference locations suggest that some factors may be operating at a range of spatial scales observable along the east coast of Australia. For all but Bar-tailed Godwit they suggest an overall decrease in key migratory species that is not limited to Penrhyn Estuary. Predation (or displacement due to presence of predators) may reduce the population of some shorebirds at some times, but no observations suggest that habitat quality, including roosting habitat and availability of prey items deter or limit the level of shorebird habitat use in Penrhyn Estuary.

Stakeholders and Funding bodies: Port Authority of NSW (Formerly Sydney Ports Corporation) fund and manage all aspects of the project, beginning with EIS studies and construction through to ongoing maintenance and monitoring. NSW Ports provides funding for ongoing maintenance and monitoring. Shorebird monitoring was done by as subcontract to Cardno (NSW/ACT) by Avifauna Research & Services, Email www.avifaunaresearch.com.au

Contact information: Dr Peggy O’Donnell Practice Lead Ecology, Water & Environment, Cardno (NSW/ACT). Tel: +61 2 9496 7700 Mobile +61 422 858 827. Postal PO Box 19, St Leonards NSW 1590. Email peggy.odonnell@cardno.com.au

WATCH VIDEO: Peggy O’Donnell 2014 pesentation to AABR seminar

Saltmarsh translocation and construction, Penrhyn Estuary, Port Botany, NSW

Mia Dalby-Ball and Andre Olson

From June 2008 to June 2011, ecological restoration work was conducted by Port Authority of NSW in association with the expansion of the port at Port Botany, Sydney, NSW. The purpose was to expand and rehabilitate Penrhyn Estuary.

The saltmarsh works at Penrhyn Estuary involved 2.4 hectares being densely planted with saltmarsh species. In addition to this 3000m2 of saltmarsh was translocated within Penrhyn Estuary. The key driver for the saltmarsh design and plant selection was the requirement for the project to provide habitat for migratory wading birds.

There were many key aspects to the project. Primary among them was the engagement of an expert to undertake a pre-words evaluation and design the wetland construction. It was also important that planning involved representatives from different disciplines including those who would be doing the on-ground work and those monitoring migratory birds. Another key aspect was that approvals and licenses were identified and obtained early.

Saltmarsh construction. Seed collection (from local sources) and plant growing was carried out more than a year before plants were required. (This is because saltmarsh plants are slow to grow, there is a narrow window of time for seed collection and permits are required to collect seed or pieces.)

Implementation works first involved removal of dune weeds (Bitou-Bush, Chrysanthemum monilifera ssp. rotundifolia) and saltmarsh weeds, in particular Spiny Rush (Juncus acutus) of which large plants were hand removed and or cut and painted with herbicide. Germinating seedlings were irrigated with Saltwater. Monthly inspections undertaken with immediate removal of new plants.

This was followed by excavation of land so that it became inundated by monthly high tides. (Monitoring of tidal inundation was carried out to test that levels were appropriate and areas that had water pooling in excess of five days were filled.)

Soil conditioner (organic rich soil) was spread over the sandy substrate and mixed to 100mm, using cultivation equipment. This was followed by planting of over 250,000 saltmarsh plants including of Beaded Glasswort (Sarcocornia quinqueflora) and Salt Couch (Sporobolus virginicus). All saltmarsh plantings were irrigated with fresh water via a sprinkler system.

Fig 1. Translocating Beaded Glasswort via electric boat. (Photo: Dragonfly Environmental)

Fig 1. Translocating Beaded Glasswort via electric boat. (Photo: Dragonfly Environmental)

Translocation of saltmarsh. A 3000m2 area of Beaded Glasswort and Salt Couch was growing on an area that was to be excavated to become mudflats. This area was cut into ~ 20cm x 20cm blocks with 100mm deep soil and lifted by hand (shovels) and put onto wooden sheets (plywood) and transported to the recipient site. Transportation was chiefly by a small boat with electric motor (Fig 1).

The saltmarsh was translocated to the site where the Spiny Rush had been removed. At the recipient site it was planted into the substrate (Fig 2). Spaces between blocks were filled with soil from the donor site. The entire area was irrigated thoroughly with salt water. Irrigation continued for six months while the transplanted material established.

Monitoring. Monitoring existing saltmarsh and proposed saltmarsh creation sites prior to, during and for 2 years post works. Additional monitoring has been conducted for a further 3 years.

Fig 2. Transplanting clumps of Beaded Glasswort and Salt Couch into areas where Spiny Rush had been removed. (Photo: Dragonfly Environmental)

Fig 2. Transplanting clumps of Beaded Glasswort and Salt Couch into areas where Spiny Rush had been removed. (Photo: Dragonfly Environmental)

Fig 3. Sprinkler irrigation during saltmarsh planting. Fresh water irrigation continued for at least 6 months post-planting. (Photo: Dragonfly Environmental)

Fig 3. Sprinkler irrigation during saltmarsh planting. Fresh water irrigation continued for at least 6 months post-planting. (Photo: Dragonfly Environmental)

Lessons learned. At over 230,000 saltmarsh plantings, to our knowledge this is the largest recorded saltmarsh construction project recorded to date. A number of findings have resulted from the project, particularly our trials to arrive at a suitable growing medium for the plantings. We sought a soil that had free drainage good moisture retention properties and contained available nutrients. Fertiliser tablets alone are insufficient in sandy soils. We trialed a range of soil conditioners, with the most successful having high organic content and did not float. Irrigation is required as tidal inundation is not adequate to keep soil moist for seedlings. We found that irrigation was required for at least 6 months

Acknowledgements: Design and pre-works site evaluation was conducted by Geoff Sainty of Sainty and Associates and BioAnalysis.  Implementation and monitoring of saltmarsh during construction and establishment phase (two years monitoring) was carried out by Dragonfly Environmental.  Cardno (NSW/ACT) has been conducting environmental monitoring post establishment phase.

Contact: Mia Dalby-Ball, Ecological Consultants Australia, 30 Palmgrove Road,  Avalon NSW 2107, Australia (Tel: 0488 481 929; Email: ecologicalca@outlook.com) or Andre Olson, Dragonfly Environmental, 1/33 Avalon Parade, Avalon NSW 2107 Australia (andre@dfe.net.au).

Twelve years of healing: Rehabilitating a willow-infested silt flat – Stormwater Management.

Alan Lane

Key words: urban stream, erosion, siltation, soft engineering, head wall

Introduction: Popes Glen Creek is a small permanent stream rising close to the centre of the township of Blackheath, NSW, Australia. Its upper catchment (10 ha) comprises low-permeability urban development, roadways, shops and parklands.

The funneling of runoff from the low-permeability catchment into the headwaters of Popes Glen Creek resulted in intense and destructive runoff after rain, carrying down large and small debris, depositing sheets of silt, uprooting or burying vegetation, causing erosion of the creek banks and threatening to undermine the head wall of the silt flat downstream. This resulted in the formation of a 1 ha silt flat at the headwaters of the creek, covered with dense infestations of mature Crack Willow (Salix fragilis), Purple Ossier (S. purpurea) and mid-storey and ground-layer weeds. This has been revegetated as a permanent wetland as described in a previous summary (https://site.emrprojectsummaries.org/2015/02/22/)

This summary describes the runoff management aspects of the project, where the aims were:

  1. to reduce the impact of runoff
  2. to reduce the incursion of silt
  3. to remediate the main channel
  4. to stabilise the head wall.
Fig 1: Notched weir diverting water towards sedimentation pond.

Figure 1: Notched weir diverting water towards sedimentation pond.

Figure 2: Sedimentation pond

Figure 2: Sedimentation pond

Works carried out:

1. Diversion of part of the flow and capturing sediment. A diversion channel was constructed with flow regulated by a notched weir in the main stream. This diverts approximately half the volume of the flow into a sedimentation pond were silt is captured, reducing the quantity deposited downstream (Figures 1 and 2).

2. Construction of low-impact detention cells. “Soft engineering” detention cells constructed across the silt flat from coir logs and woody debris found on site retain and slow the release of flow, dispersing it across the silt flat and raising the water table, suppressing weeds and supporting the vegetation of the created wetland (Figures 3 and 4).

3. Elimination of the highly incised main channel. Natural debris falling into the main channel creates a series of small pondages. These retain and slow the flow and allow overflow to disperse across the silt flat. (Figure 5).

4. Protection of the creek banks. Dense plantings of deep-rooted swamp vegetation e.g. Red-fruited Saw Sedge (Gahnia sieberiana) and Black Wattle (Callicoma serratifolia) (Figure 6), and loosely woven structures constructed from woody debris (Figure 7) protect creek banks and silt flat from erosion and scouring.

5. Stabilisation of the headwall. Contractors employed with funds from the Environmental Trust have constructed a major structure with railway sleepers and rock armouring to stabilise the head wall (Figures 8 and 9).

Figure 3: Volunteers building a detention cell from woody debris found on site.

Figure 3: Volunteers building a detention cell from woody debris found on site.

Figure 4: Raised water table enabled wetland sedges (Carex gaudichaudiana and Eleocharis sphacolata) to displace Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens).

Figure 4: Raised water table enabled wetland sedges (Carex gaudichaudiana and Eleocharis sphacolata) to displace Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens).

 

Lessons learned and future directions:  This project is on track to replace the forest of willows with wetland vegetation, transform a highly incised creek and weed-infested silt flat into a healthy Upper Blue Mountains Swamp – an endangered ecological community scheduled under the Commonwealth’s Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

The volunteer group will continue working with Council and contractors to complete the planting program and to monitor the evolution of the site, including its vegetation, water quality and colonisation by macroinvertebrates, birds and frogs.

Stakeholders and funding bodies: This work is supported by a grant from the Government of New South Wales through its Environmental Trust and by the Blue Mountains City Council,  which also oversaw the engineering works. All photographs: Alan Lane and Paul Vale.

Figure 5: A natural pondage formed when debris was allowed to remain in the stream.

Figure 5: A natural pondage formed when debris was allowed to remain in the stream.

Figure 6: Dense plantings of Black Wattle (Calicoma serratifolia) and Gahnia (Gahnia sieberiana) protect creek banks from erosion.

Figure 6: Dense plantings of Black Wattle (Callicoma serratifolia) and Gahnia (Gahnia sieberiana) protect creek banks from erosion.

Figure 7: Volunteers using woody debris to protect the silt flat from scouring.

Figure 7: Volunteers using woody debris to protect the silt flat from scouring.

Figure 8: Part of the original head wall approximately 3 m high and 20 m wide.

Figure 8: Part of the original head wall approximately 3 m high and 20 m wide.

Figure 9:  Part of structure constructed to stabilise the head wall.

Figure 9: Part of structure constructed to stabilise the head wall.

Contact information: Dr Alan Lane, Coordinator Popes Glen Bushcare Group, PO Box 388, Blackheath NSW 2785, Australia. Tel: +61 2 4787 7097; Paul Vale, Deputy Coordinator Popes Glen Bushcare Group, 81 Prince Edward St, Blackheath NSW 2785, Australia. Tel: +61 2 4787 8080; and Ray Richardson, Chairman of Steering Committee, Environmental Trust Grant 2011/CBR/0098. Tel: +61 2 4759 2534.