Category Archives: Erosion issues & solutions

Restoring wetland communities in the Coorong and Lower Lakes, South Australia

[Summary will be reinstated soon.]

Recovering biodiversity at Trust for Nature’s Neds Corner Station, Victoria

Doug Robinson, Deanna Marshall, Peter Barnes and Colleen Barnes

Key words. Private conservation area, natural regeneration, ecological restoration, rabbit control.

Introduction. Neds Corner Station is Victoria’s largest private conservation property. This 30,000 hectare ex-sheep and cattle station was purchased for nature conservation by Trust for Nature (Victoria) in 2002.

The property occupies the driest area of the state with an average annual rainfall of only 250 mm. As such, it has strong ecological links to the arid regions of Australia and Australia’s rangelands. Neds Corner sits strategically at the hub of an extensive network of public and private conservation lands bordering or close to the Murray River in Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. The reserve is bordered on three sides by the Murray Sunset National Park and borders frontages along the Murray River and associated anabranches for more than thirty kilometres, where the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) dominated riparian zone connects with Chenopod Shrublands, Semi-arid Chenopod Woodlands and Chenopod Mallee Woodlands. Trust for Nature’s restoration efforts are targeted at restoring woodland connectivity across the property to improve habitat extent and condition for woodland and mallee plants and animals, including the nationally threatened Regent Parrot (Polytelis anthopeplus). A biodiversity survey in 2011 found 884 native species at Neds Corner Station, including 6 threatened birds and animals, 77 threatened plants, and 21 species new to science. Trust for Nature continues to find new records for the property.

Fig 1 Neds 2003

Fig. 1. Highly degraded area (near watering points) in 2003 just after Trust purchased the property.

 

Fig 2 Neds 2011

Fig. 2. Same photopoint in 2014 showing extensive natural regeneration of Low Chenopod Shrubland after removal of livestock and extensive treatment of rabbits.

 

Planning for recovery. In 2002, when Trust for Nature first took on the property, the land was severely degraded from continuous over grazing by stock, rabbits and native herbivores; weed infestations; historic clearing of extensive areas of woodland for firewood and forage; and lack of flooding. Native vegetation was sparse over much of the property, soil erosion was extensive and the floodplain and semi-arid woodlands were all showing signs of extreme stress.

In the early years of ownership, management focussed on addressing the most obvious of these threats, with a focus on rabbit control and weed control. In 2010, with funding support from The Nature Conservancy, Trust for Nature prepared a Conservation Action Plan for the reserve, using the Open Standards for Conservation process, and a subsequent management plan. These planning documents identified the key biodiversity values on the reserve, the major threats to these values and the strategies to reduce threats and improve condition to achieve agreed ecological goals.Fig 6 Neds

Fig. 3. Dune Wattle (Acacia ligulata) natural regeneration after cropping was discontinued.

Fig 7 Neds

 Fig 4. Hop Bush (Dodonaea viscosa) natural regeneration after cropping ceased.

Works undertaken. Trust for Nature’s first action was to remove the livestock to allow the regeneration and growth of native vegetation. Stock fencing was decommissioned to enable free movement of native fauna, and new exclosure fencing to protect sites of cultural and ecological significance were also constructed. Major efforts were made to reduce rabbit numbers through the use of warren ripping, fumigation and 1080 baiting across the property. To date, over 20,000 warrens have been treated. Direct seeding and tubestock planting in the Semi-arid Woodland areas of the property have been continuous, with the cessation of a cropping licence, over 500 ha direct seeded in one year as part of an Australian Government funded project. In partnership with the Mallee Catchment Management Authority, environmental water allocations have been used to inundate areas of Neds Corner, providing a vital lifeline to many of the plants and animals that inhabit the riverine billabongs and floodplain forests. Artificial water points and superfluous tracks have been closed. Targeted fox and other feral animal programs are continuous.

Fig 3 Neds 2003

Fig 5. Highly degraded ‘Pine paddock’ in 2003 just after the Trust purchased the property.

Fig 4 Neds 2011

Fig 6. Pine paddock from same photopoint in n2014 after exclosure fencing, rabbit control and extensive direct seeding of trees and shrubs in 2007 (and again in 2010). The grasses all naturally regenerated.

Results. In the 14 years since domestic stock removal and the ongoing control of rabbits and weeds, there has been a dramatic increase in the cover of native vegetation, notably from natural regeneration (Figs 1-4) but also from extensive supplementary planting and direct seeding (Figs 5-8). In 2011, wide spread natural germination of Murray Pines occurred across the woodland sections of the property and Sandhill Wattle (Acacia ligulata) seedlings were observed on one rise where no parent plant was known to occur, indicating a viable seed bank may exist. The vulnerable Darling Lilies (Crinum flaccidum) continue to extend their range, given favourable weather conditions and the continuous control of herbaceous threats to the extent required to ensure adequate recruitment of these key flora species. Bird surveys undertaken for one of the targeted projects within Neds Corner over the past 10 years show an encouraging increase in reporting rates of Brown Treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus victoriae) (>x2 increase), Chestnut-crowned Babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) (>x2% increase) and Red-capped Robin (Petroica goodenovii) (>x20 increase).

Fig 5 neds

Fig.7. Revegetation plantings in 2008

Fig 6 NEds 2014

Fig 8. Same revegetation planing line in 2013.

Current and future directions. Trust for Nature are due to revise their CAP and have identified the need to undertake recovery actions at a greater scale. They are currently investigating the feasibility of re-introducing some fauna species back into Neds Corner Station that haven’t been found in the region for decades, provided there is sufficient habitat to sustain them.

Acknowledgements. As a not-for-profit organisation, Trust for Nature (Victoria) relies on the generous support of many individuals, organisations and government entities. The main project partners to date include The Nature Conservancy, RE Ross Trust, Yulgilbar Foundation, Australian Government, Mallee Catchment Management Authority, Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water & Planning, Mildura Rural City Council, Northern Mallee Region Landcare, Traditional Owners and the thousands of hours volunteers contribute to Neds Corner Station.

Contact: Doug Robinson, Conservation Science Coordinator, Trust for Nature: (Tel: +61 1800 99 99 33.) Email: dougr@tfn.org.au; www.trustfornature.org.au

Photos: Trust for Nature

 

 

 

Brush pack experiment in restoration: How small changes can avoid leakage of resources and underpin larger scale improvements for restoration and rehabilitation

David Tongway and John Ludwig

Key words: Landscape Function Analysis, biological foci, water harvesting, desertification, erosion

The following experiment illustrates how relatively small changes to redirect water flow can capture water and other biological resources at a restoration site. However the process occurs not only at the micro scale but cumulates to site and landscape scales, making it a primary underpinning principles of a method of site analysis, Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) that has been applied across Australia and other countries to assist land managers counter desertification by redesigning processes that regulate the flow of resources, minimise losses and foster cycling. See http://members.iinet.net.au/~lfa_procedures/

The LFA mindset and methodology involve a purposeful change of focus from listing the biota/ species present or absent at a site, to an examination of the degree to which biophysical processes deal with vital resources with respect to stresses arising from management and climatic events.

Fig 1 before

Fig. 1. Before: bare, crusted, low OC soil, erosion, and high water runoff mainitained by low but persistent, set-stock grazing by sheep and kangaroos.

Fig 2. after treatment

Fig. 2. The restoration treatment was simply to build brush-packs across the contour to trap water, soil and plant litter, slowing overland outflow. This also prevented the grazing down to ~1cm. Grass plants were able to maintain about 10cm of photosynthetic tissue.

Fig 4

Fig 3. After 7 years. Clearly the soil properties have improved the ‘habitat quality’ for the target vegetation.

Fig 5 14 years after

Figure 4. After 14 years, native vegetation re-established.

Fig 3. detail of bushpack after 3 years.

Fig 5. Detail of the brushpack after 3 years showing micro-structures capable of slowing water and accumulating resources.

1. tongway table

ANOTHER KEY OBSERVATION RELEVANT TO RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION

Where resources are not captured or leak out of a system, patchiness will become evident as resources self-organise around foci of accumulation – creating ‘patches’ where resources accumulate and ‘interpatches’ from which they ‘leak’.

The Golden Rule for rehabilitation is: “Restore/replace missing or ineffective processes in the landscape in order to improve the soil habitat quality for desired biota.”

Fig 6. Grassy sward healthy

Fig. 6. A grassy sward patch where the grass plants are close enough together that the water run-off is unable to generate enough energy to redistribute the grassy litter, which is evenly distributed. (The slope is from top to bottom in the image.)

There is also no evidence of sediment transport (not visible in this image). This is because of the tortuous path and short inter-grass distance. It would be possible to derive the critical grass plant spacing for “sward” function in any landscape, taking into account slope, aspect and soil texture.

Fig 7. Grassland in patch-interpatch mode, due to exceeding the critical runoff length for erosion initiation. (Slope is from top to bottom.)

Note that litter and sediment have both been washed off the inter-patch and have been arrested by a down-slope grass patch. Note the orientation of the grassy litter strands.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Program – Impacts on vegetation and seabirds

Key Words: Subantarctic, eradication, seabirds, vegetation, restoration

Introduction. Introduced rabbits, rats and mice have caused widespread and severe ecological impacts on the native flora, fauna, geomorphology and natural landscape values of Subantarctic Macquarie Island. Major impacts include the destruction of almost half of the island’s tall tussock grassland and the depletion of keystone palatable species, a decline in the abundance and or breeding success of a range of seabird species due to habitat degradation, increased exposure to the elements and predation, as well as increased slope erosion. The Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Project is the largest eradication program for rabbits, ship rats and mice in the world.

The overall goal of the pest eradication project was to eradicate rabbits, rats and mice from Macquarie Island to enable restoration of the island’s natural ecological processes including the recovery of plant and animal communities impacted by these feral species.

Works undertaken. The Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service developed a plan for the eradication of rabbits and rodents on Macquarie Island that was approved by the federal Minister of Environment in 2006. Following lengthy negotiations and a donation of $100,000 by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Peregrine Adventures, funding of $24.6 million for the project was secured in June 2007 through a joint state and federal government agreement.

The three major components of the Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Plan after the initial planning and organisation phase were:

  • Toxic baiting of rabbits, rats and mice using aerial baiting from helicopters across the island conducted over two winters to minimise the risk of mortality for non-target seabirds. Mitigation measures were taken to reduce seabird mortality in six species after the 2010 baiting, including the introduction of calicivirus (Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus) before further baiting in May 2011 – (See Evaluation Report 2014)
  • On-ground follow-up with hunters and dogs, which was originally expected to take about three years but took seven months (2012) following the outstanding success of the calicivirus in substantially reducing rabbit numbers.
  • Five months after the last known rabbit was killed, the monitoring phase of the project commenced in April 2012 to search for any evidence of live rabbit or rodent presence on the island and continued for two years, with some 92,000 km travelled over 3 years (2011-2014).

Following two years of monitoring without any evidence of the target species, the project to eradicate rabbits and rodents from Macquarie Island was declared successful in April 2014.  A variety of established research/monitoring projects on threatened native plant species, invasive plant species, plant communities and ten species of seabirds on Macquarie Island have been used to provide biologic data on changes in abundance, distribution and condition (see Evaluation Report 2014).

Large areas of the highly palatable macquarie megadaisy are recovering from rabbit grazing Photo Kate Keifer

Figure 1. Large areas of the highly palatable macquarie megadaisy are recovering from rabbit grazing. (Photo Kate Keifer)

Results to date.

Vegetation. Vegetation recovery was well underway by 2013, when vegetation biomass on the island had increased by a factor of five to ten compared with 2011 levels.

The initial stage of vegetation recovery following rabbit eradication was a rapid increase in the biomass of the pre-existing communities. The pre-eradication vegetation was a highly modified disturbance disclimax with the majority of the lower slopes of the island dominated by Short Subantarctic Bent Grass (Agrostis magellanica), where regular soil disturbance by introduced species encouraged the establishment of herbaceous primary colonisers including willowherbs (Epilobium spp.), Subantarctic Bittercress (Cardamine corymbosa), Waterblinks (Montia fontana) and the introduced Annual Meadow Grass (Poa annua). Subantarctic Buzzy (Acaena magellanica) covered large areas. Tall Tussockgrass (Poa foliosa) was reduced to small pockets or individual plants on steep slopes, whilst the Macquarie Cabbage (Stilbocarpa polaris) was confined to very steep coastal slopes and Prickly Shieldfern (Polystichum vestitum) survived in exclosures.

More recent monitoring shows bare ground declining, with further increases in vegetation cover and successional changes. Taller/longer lived species have greatly reduced the cover of primary colonisers (mostly short lived, small herbs). The three introduced plant species on the island, all of which are primary colonisers, have fluctuated in abundance post-eradication.

Annual meadow grass has decreased markedly in abundance away from areas of seal and seabird disturbance, while Mouse-ear Chick Weed (Cerastium fontanum) and Garden Chickweed (Stellaria media) initially increased in abundance between 2011 and 2013 but have since declined.

The previously ubiquitous Subantarctic Buzzy has declined dramatically with competition from other species, while the previously less common Little Burr (Acaena minor) is now more prevalent.

The megaherbs Macquarie Cabbage and Macquarie Megadaisy (Pleurophyllum hookeri) and Tall Tussockgrass are beginning to spread and establish across the island (Figure 1). It is predicted that a combination of these species will become dominant in much of the coastal and slope vegetation over time, with Tall Tussockgrass already increasing in cover in many areas. The prickly shieldfern is expanding from a few remnant populations by recruitment or regeneration in former exclosures, as well as establishing in new locations.

Image 4 DSC_1110 cropped

Seabirds. A combined total of 2418 individual native birds were recorded as killed via primary and secondary ingestion of broadifacoum poison during the winter baiting of 2010 and 2011. These numbers are minima, since many were predated before detected and others died at sea. Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) sustained the largest mortality (n=989), followed by Giant Petrels (Macronectes spp; n=761), Subantarctic Skua (Catharacta skua) (n=512) and Black Duck (Anas superciliosa) (n=156). Existing monitoring programs enable the population consequences of this mortality to be evaluated for both species of giant petrel and for skua, however baseline data for gulls and ducks on Macquarie Island are lacking. The mortality event was associated with a 25-30% reduction in the breeding populations of both giant petrel species, however ongoing monitoring reassuringly shows both populations to have stabilised and appear to have resumed the increasing trajectory that they were undergoing before the mortality event. Skua were heavily impacted, with breeding numbers reduced by approximately 50% in monitored sites. There is minimal sign of recovery for this species in recent years. The response of this species to the sudden removal of a primary prey item (rabbits) and the consequent flow-on ecosystem impacts is the focus of current investigation.

With the success of Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Program, we are seeing rapid recovery in the breeding habitats of both burrow and surface nesting species. Grey Petrel (Procellaria cinerea), which re-established on Macquarie Island after the successful eradication of cats in 2000, have continued to increase and Blue Petrel (Halobaena cerulea) which were previously restricted to rat-free offshore rock-stacks, have returned to mainland Macquarie Island and continue to expand in both distribution and number. Dedicated survey effort in coming seasons will provide quantitative estimates of the response of the burrow nesting seabird assemblage to Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Program.

Lessons. Perhaps one of the most important lessons learned is the value of biological monitoring data, before during and after such an eradication program, which provides the basis for effective adaptive management as well as evaluation of success or otherwise.

The other salutatory lesson is the complex biological inter-relationships that exist and a need to more explicitly factor in the consequences of the ‘unknowns’ in associated risk assessments.

Acknowledgement. Thanks to Micah Visoiu for most recent vegetation data.

Contact. Jennie Whinam, Discipline of Geography & Spatial Sciences, University of Tasmania Jennie.Whinam@utas.edu.au; 0447 336160. Rachael Alderman, Wildlife Management Section, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Wildlife and Environment, Rachael.Alderman@dpipwe.tas.gov.au

Twelve years of healing: Rehabilitating a willow-infested silt flat – Stormwater Management.

Alan Lane

Key words: urban stream, erosion, siltation, soft engineering, head wall

Introduction: Popes Glen Creek is a small permanent stream rising close to the centre of the township of Blackheath, NSW, Australia. Its upper catchment (10 ha) comprises low-permeability urban development, roadways, shops and parklands.

The funneling of runoff from the low-permeability catchment into the headwaters of Popes Glen Creek resulted in intense and destructive runoff after rain, carrying down large and small debris, depositing sheets of silt, uprooting or burying vegetation, causing erosion of the creek banks and threatening to undermine the head wall of the silt flat downstream. This resulted in the formation of a 1 ha silt flat at the headwaters of the creek, covered with dense infestations of mature Crack Willow (Salix fragilis), Purple Ossier (S. purpurea) and mid-storey and ground-layer weeds. This has been revegetated as a permanent wetland as described in a previous summary (https://site.emrprojectsummaries.org/2015/02/22/)

This summary describes the runoff management aspects of the project, where the aims were:

  1. to reduce the impact of runoff
  2. to reduce the incursion of silt
  3. to remediate the main channel
  4. to stabilise the head wall.
Fig 1: Notched weir diverting water towards sedimentation pond.

Figure 1: Notched weir diverting water towards sedimentation pond.

Figure 2: Sedimentation pond

Figure 2: Sedimentation pond

Works carried out:

1. Diversion of part of the flow and capturing sediment. A diversion channel was constructed with flow regulated by a notched weir in the main stream. This diverts approximately half the volume of the flow into a sedimentation pond were silt is captured, reducing the quantity deposited downstream (Figures 1 and 2).

2. Construction of low-impact detention cells. “Soft engineering” detention cells constructed across the silt flat from coir logs and woody debris found on site retain and slow the release of flow, dispersing it across the silt flat and raising the water table, suppressing weeds and supporting the vegetation of the created wetland (Figures 3 and 4).

3. Elimination of the highly incised main channel. Natural debris falling into the main channel creates a series of small pondages. These retain and slow the flow and allow overflow to disperse across the silt flat. (Figure 5).

4. Protection of the creek banks. Dense plantings of deep-rooted swamp vegetation e.g. Red-fruited Saw Sedge (Gahnia sieberiana) and Black Wattle (Callicoma serratifolia) (Figure 6), and loosely woven structures constructed from woody debris (Figure 7) protect creek banks and silt flat from erosion and scouring.

5. Stabilisation of the headwall. Contractors employed with funds from the Environmental Trust have constructed a major structure with railway sleepers and rock armouring to stabilise the head wall (Figures 8 and 9).

Figure 3: Volunteers building a detention cell from woody debris found on site.

Figure 3: Volunteers building a detention cell from woody debris found on site.

Figure 4: Raised water table enabled wetland sedges (Carex gaudichaudiana and Eleocharis sphacolata) to displace Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens).

Figure 4: Raised water table enabled wetland sedges (Carex gaudichaudiana and Eleocharis sphacolata) to displace Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens).

 

Lessons learned and future directions:  This project is on track to replace the forest of willows with wetland vegetation, transform a highly incised creek and weed-infested silt flat into a healthy Upper Blue Mountains Swamp – an endangered ecological community scheduled under the Commonwealth’s Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

The volunteer group will continue working with Council and contractors to complete the planting program and to monitor the evolution of the site, including its vegetation, water quality and colonisation by macroinvertebrates, birds and frogs.

Stakeholders and funding bodies: This work is supported by a grant from the Government of New South Wales through its Environmental Trust and by the Blue Mountains City Council,  which also oversaw the engineering works. All photographs: Alan Lane and Paul Vale.

Figure 5: A natural pondage formed when debris was allowed to remain in the stream.

Figure 5: A natural pondage formed when debris was allowed to remain in the stream.

Figure 6: Dense plantings of Black Wattle (Calicoma serratifolia) and Gahnia (Gahnia sieberiana) protect creek banks from erosion.

Figure 6: Dense plantings of Black Wattle (Callicoma serratifolia) and Gahnia (Gahnia sieberiana) protect creek banks from erosion.

Figure 7: Volunteers using woody debris to protect the silt flat from scouring.

Figure 7: Volunteers using woody debris to protect the silt flat from scouring.

Figure 8: Part of the original head wall approximately 3 m high and 20 m wide.

Figure 8: Part of the original head wall approximately 3 m high and 20 m wide.

Figure 9:  Part of structure constructed to stabilise the head wall.

Figure 9: Part of structure constructed to stabilise the head wall.

Contact information: Dr Alan Lane, Coordinator Popes Glen Bushcare Group, PO Box 388, Blackheath NSW 2785, Australia. Tel: +61 2 4787 7097; Paul Vale, Deputy Coordinator Popes Glen Bushcare Group, 81 Prince Edward St, Blackheath NSW 2785, Australia. Tel: +61 2 4787 8080; and Ray Richardson, Chairman of Steering Committee, Environmental Trust Grant 2011/CBR/0098. Tel: +61 2 4759 2534.

Seagrass meadow restoration trial using transplants – Cockburn Sound, Western Australia

Jennifer Verduin and Elizabeth Sinclair

Keywords: marine restoration, seagrass, Posidonia australis, transplant, genetic diversity, microsatellite DNA, provenance

Cockburn Sound is a natural embayment approximately 16 km long and 7 km wide, to the west of the southern end of the Perth metropolitan area. Its seagrass meadows have been reduced in area by 77% since 1967, largely due to the effects of eutrophication, industrial development and sand mining. To answer a range of questions relevant to seagrass restoration, we (i) carried out a transplant trial, (ii) monitored the impact and recovery of the donor site, and (iii) retrospectively assessed genetic diversity in the transplant site.

Methods. (i) The transplant trial was conducted between 2004 and 2008 in an area totalling 3.2 hectares of bare sand at 2.2–4.0 m depth on Southern Flats, Cockburn Sound. Donor material was sourced from a naturally occurring seagrass meadow on Parmelia Bank, north of Cockburn Sound, approximately 16 km away from the transplant site. Sprigs (15–20 cm length) of a dominant local seagrass, Posidonia australis Hook.f., were harvested from donor material and each sprig tied to a purpose-designed degradable wire staples (30 cm in length) and planted and secured into a bare sandy area at 50 cm shoot spacing by SCUBA divers (Figure 1). Sprig survival was periodically monitored in 10 m x 10 m representative sub-plots (15–20 plots per hectare).

(ii) For the meadow recovery study, several plug (a clump of seagrass excavated) extraction configurations were examined in P. australis meadows to monitor shoot growth into plug scars, with metal rings placed into the resulting bare area to monitor shoot growth into it at 3, 10, 13 and 24 months. Rings of 8.3 cm diameter were placed into adjacent undisturbed meadows to act as reference plots. (iii) Shoot material was collected from established plants for microsatellite DNA genotyping from the donor site in 2004, and from the 2007/2008 plantings in the restoration site in January 2012. Genetic sampling from the restoration site was done from mature shoots only, to ensure we were sampling original donor material. DNA was extracted from shoot meristem and genotyped using seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers (Sinclair et al. 2009).

Fig1

Figure 1. Transplants in situ, prior to the pegs being covering with sediment (Photo Jennifer Verduin)

Results. (i) The transplants have grown well to fill in gaps and become a healthy, self-sustaining meadow, with first flowering in July 2010, three years after initial transplant in 2007. There has also been considerable natural recruitment in the area through regrowth from matte and new seedlings (Figure 2). (ii) No significant differences in shoot growth between extraction configurations were observed in the donor meadow, and there was an increase in shoot numbers over two years. Based on the number of growing shoots, the predicted recovery time of a meadow is estimated at three years. (iii) Genetic diversity was very high in the restored meadow (clonal diversity R = 0.96), nearly identical to the donor meadow.

Fig2

Figure 2. Aerial view of the restoration site (within yellow markers), with natural recruitment occurring from vegetative regrowth and new seedling recruits (Photo Jennifer Verduin, 2010).

Important considerations for long-term success and monitoring. While several important questions have arisen from this trial, it demonstrated that (i) the transplants achieved a high level of establishment within a few years; (ii) the high genetic diversity in the donor site was captured and retained in the restored meadow; and (iii) surrounding sandy substrate is being colonised by P. australis through regrowth from the matte and natural recruitment from seeds dispersed within and/or from other meadows, (the latter potentially helping to ensure the long-term viability of restored seagrass meadows.)

Partners and Investors: This project was carried out as part of the Seagrass Research and Rehabilitation Program through Oceanica Consulting Pty Ltd, with Industry Partners Cockburn Cement, Department of Commerce (formerly Department of Industry and Resources), WA, Department of Environment and Conservation WA, The University of Western Australia, and the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority, WA.

Contact: Jennifer Verduin, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 Australia Email: J.Verduin@murdoch.edu.au; Elizabeth Sinclair, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6907 Australia Email: elizabeth.sinclair@uwa.edu.au. If you are interested in becoming involved with seagrass rehabilitation through student projects please contact us.

 

 

Kirra Dune Revegetation – Queensland.

Key words.  Dune reconstruction, strand ecosystem,

Mark Bibby

A project was developed in 2009 to remove sand from the intertidal area at Kirra to form a new series of dunes along a 1.5km stretch of beach from Kirra to Bilinga, on the far south coast of Queensland (Fig 1).  While the purpose was to maintain the beach amenity and reinforce a buffer to the shoreline, the reconstruction of the dunes (to an average height of 4 metres and the width v from 25 to 60 metres) also involved reinstating native plant communities along the dunes for stabilisation and the conservation of biodiversity.

Fig 1: Project area – 1.5km stretch of beach from Kirra to Bilinga, Queensland.

Revegetation was conducted in the frontal dune area of the project site and in strategically placed infill planting cells between the frontal dune and the existing vegetation landward edge of the project site (Fig 2). Four locally occurring dune species were selected: Spinifex (Spinifex hirsutus) 65%; Beach Bean (Canavalia rosea) 5%; Goats Foot Convolvulus (Ipomoea pes-caprae) 15%; and Vigna (Vigna marina) 15%.

Fig 2: Revegetation of the dune system using infill planting cells and four locally occurring plant species (April 2011).

For a 12 week period the plants were monitored and watered with a 25,000L capacity off-road truck, with plants replaced as required. The site was then maintained for a period of twelve months post-planting to promote good growth of installed plants, prevent weed incursion, ensure dune stability through increased native vegetation cover and assist natural regeneration of dune species.

The total length of the planting area is 1515m and  approximately 18,000 tubestock were planted out over an area of 18000m2 by a team of 6, who planted a total average of 4500 plants per day.

Results. Planting survival rates varied mainly due to mobile sand and anthropogenic disturbance. Good rainfall over the installation period and for 4 weeks following planting ensured establishment was successful (Fig 3).

Fig 3: Revegetation of dune system 5 months after works (Sept 2011)

At 12 months after the planting on the foredune, Beach Spinifex (Spinifex sericeus) densities are approaching, or in some areas have reached, densities expected for a naturally established frontal dune (Fig 4). Since planting, the nursery-spelled Beach Spinifex have flowered and seeded, however the bulk of the increase in biomass is due to extension of the runners. Beach Spinifex runners have travelled in all directions across the dune (i.e. including up inclines). Small swales of windswept sand can be seen captured in front of Beach Spinifex. Of the three species planted on the frontal dune, Beach Spinifex (overall) has shown the greatest increase in area covered.

Fig 4: Revegetation of dune system 12 months after works (April 2012).

The other two species Vigna (Vigna marina) and Beach Morning Glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae) have also done well, although not increased their biomass as rapidly as the Spinifex. The plants, however, have had a good survival rate and throughout December to April 2012 have seen an increase in their rate of growth. Based on the slower (compared to the Spinifex) growth rates that both the Vigna and the Beach Morning Glory exhibited throughout the establishment period either:

(a) they naturally require more time to establish;

(b) their growth rate throughout winter months is less than Spinifex;

(c) they are more sensitive to wind-blown sand than the Spinifex; or

(d) a combination of factors.

Growth rate, however, was not a specific metric that influenced the decision to include these species in the revegetation species selection; the primary reason for their inclusion was to increase in situ species richness in the mid- to long term. Based on this, their inclusion has been successful. As mentioned previously they are now growing more rapidly and both species have flowered and produced seed.

Runners are beginning to connect the infill planting cells with the frontal dune row plantings. In addition to the three species used in the frontal dune plantings, Beach Bean (Canavalia rosea) was also included. The establishment, growth and survivorship of Beach Bean has been similar to that of Vigna — a period where growth appeared minimal and then more rapid growth throughout summer 2011/2012.

Overall survival rate is approximately 80%, however survival rate of individual plants is probably not the best measure of success for a project of this nature. Percentage cover or biomass is a more appropriate measure. Despite this, whichever measure of success is chosen the project has met and exceeded requirements.

Plant abundance and vegetative cover are very good to excellent. Combined with the species composition (richness) many areas of the frontal dune are indistinguishable from a naturally occurring frontal dune. The plants are reproducing and increasing their abundance; at this point predominantly vegetatively (i.e. ‘runners’) however all species have produced seed and these could reasonably be expected to add to the plant population.

The plants are well established and (in the absence of any extreme natural events or destruction by intent) self-sustaining.

Lessons learned.  Beach Spinifex (Spinifex sericeus) is a rapid colonizer of frontal dunes and was the first of the four planted species to reinforce a buffer for the newly created dunes.

The largest threats against successful establishment are:

  • Anthropogenic disturbance through the planting establishment area. This resulted in breaking the ‘crust’ that forms on the top of semi-stable sand, making the underlying sand more susceptible to erosion.
  • Sandblow that covers or undermines plants in the first few months post planting.

Because the sand was “sterile” (due to it having been reclaimed from the intertidal zone and lacking a seed bank), weed invasion, up to this point, has been minimal. This may suggest that weeds predominantly recolonise natural dunes due to accumulated seeds and other propagules persistent in the sand.

Stakeholders: The Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM) has been responsible for the project management of the Kirra Beach Restoration Project. The Gold Coast City Council (GCCC) is a key stakeholder and the primary service provider for the works.

Contact: Mark Bibby, Gecko Regen, / 139 Duringan Street,Currumbin, Qld, Australia. Tel:  +61 (7) 5534 6395. Email: admin@geckoregen.org.au ; http://www.geckoregen.org.au/